"Some people look at subprime lending and see evil. I look at subprime lending and I see the American dream in action," he said. "My mother lived it as a result of a finance company making a mortgage loan that a bank would not make."
On Capitol Hill, Mr. Gramm became the most effective proponent of deregulation in a generation, by dint of his expertise (a Ph.D in economics), free-market ideology, perch on the Senate banking committee and force of personality (a writer in Texas once called him "a snapping turtle"). And in one remarkable stretch from 1999 to 2001, he pushed laws and promoted policies that he says unshackled businesses from needless restraints but his critics charge significantly contributed to the financial crisis that has rattled the nation.
He led the effort to block measures curtailing deceptive or predatory lending, which was just beginning to result in a jump in home foreclosures that would undermine the financial markets. He advanced legislation that fractured oversight of Wall Street while knocking down Depression-era barriers that restricted the rise and reach of financial conglomerates.
Many of his deregulation efforts were backed by the Clinton administration. Other members of Congress -- who collectively received hundreds of millions of dollars in campaign contributions from financial industry donors over the last decade -- also played roles.
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