President Hamid Karzai may have slammed recent drug raids conducted by U.S. and Russian agents in Afghanistan as "a violation of sovereignty," yet that didn't prevent his fellow Afghans from playing what some describe as a lead role in the operation.
On Nov. 3, military, government and security officials attended a large-scale burning of confiscated opium in Herat. The preparation of the materials and subsequent bonfire are seen in the slideshow below.
According to the BBC, Afghanistan reportedly produces 90 percent of the world's opium, the main ingredient in heroin.
See dramatic photos of the bonfire below: