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Earth Day: EPA Battles Examined Through 'Documerica' Photos

DINA CAPPIELLO   04/21/12 10:53 AM ET  AP

WASHINGTON — A polluted drainage ditch that once flowed with industrial waste from Lake Charles, La., petrochemical plants teems with overgrown, wild plants today.

A light-rail line zips past the spot where a now-defunct Portland, Ore., gasoline station advertised in 1972 that it had run out of gas.

A smoking Jersey City, N.J., dump piled with twisted, rusty metal has disappeared, along with the twin towers of the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan that were its backdrop.

Forty years after the Environmental Protection Agency sent an army of nearly 100 photographers across the country to capture images at the dawn of environmental regulation, The Associated Press went back for Earth Day this year to see how things have changed. It is something the agency never got to do because the Documerica program, as it was called, died in 1978, the victim of budget cuts.

AP photographers returned to more than a dozen of those locations in recent weeks, from Portland to Cleveland and Corpus Christi, Texas. Of the 20,000 photos in the archive, the AP selected those that focused on environmental issues, rather than the more general shots of everyday life in the 1970s.

Gone are the many obvious signs of pollution – clouds of smoke billowing from industrial chimneys, raw sewage flowing into rivers, garbage strewn over beaches and roadsides – that heightened environmental awareness in the 1970s, and led to the first Earth Day and the EPA's creation in 1970. Such environmental consciousness caused Congress to pass almost unanimously some of the country's bedrock environmental laws in the years that followed.

Today's pollution problems aren't as easy to see or to photograph. Some in industry and politics question whether environmental regulation has gone too far and whether the risks are worth addressing, given their costs.

Republican presidential contender Mitt Romney has called for the firing of EPA chief Lisa Jackson, while GOP rival Newt Gingrich has said the EPA should be replaced altogether. Jackson has faced tough questioning on Capitol Hill so often the in past two years that a top Republican quipped that she needs her own parking spot.

"To a certain extent, we are a victim of our own success," said William Ruckelshaus, who headed the EPA when it came into existence under Republican President Richard Nixon and was in charge during the Documerica project. "Right now, EPA is under sharp criticism partially because it is not as obvious to people that pollution problems exist and that we need to deal with them."

Environmental laws that passed Congress so easily in Ruckelshaus' day are now at the center of a partisan dispute between Republicans and Democrats. Dozens of bills have been introduced to limit environmental protections that critics say will lead to job losses and economic harm, and there are those who question what the vast majority of scientists accept – that the burning of fossil fuels is causing global warming.

In the 1970s, the first environmental regulations were just starting to take effect, with widespread support. Now, according to some officials in the oil and gas and electric utility industries, which are responsible for the bulk of emissions and would bear the greatest costs, the EPA has gone overboard with rules.

For instance, Documerica photographers captured a wave of coal-fired power plants under construction. Republicans and the industry now say environmental regulations are partly to blame for shuttering some of the oldest and dirtiest coal plants.

Jim DiPeso of ConservAmerica, a group that recently changed its name from Republicans for Environmental Protection, says the EPA is caught in the center of a perfect storm. "This time of greater cynicism about government, more economic anxiety and the fact that the problems are not immediately apparent, has created this political problem for EPA," he said.

In an interview, Jackson said she believes that people in the United States still want to protect the environment. "There's a large gulf between the rhetoric inside the Beltway to do everything from cut back on EPA to get rid of the whole place, and what the American people would actually stand for," she said. "It's very easy to make rash statements without thinking about what that means to the health of everyday Americans."

A 2010 Pew Research Center survey showed that 57 percent of those questioned held a favorable view of the EPA, compared with a 1997 poll that showed 69 percent with a positive view of the agency. A CNN/Opinion Research Corp. poll taken last year found that 71 percent of people surveyed said that the government should continue provide money to the EPA to enforce regulations to address global warming and other environmental issues.

"We are not done. We still have challenges we have to face," Jackson said.

The agency last year began a volunteer photography project called State of the Environment. More than 620 people have participated and submitted 1,800 photographs, but only a few are at the same sites at the 1970s project.

Images always have spurred environmental consciousness. A 1980s satellite picture of the ozone hole helped lead to a ban on the chemicals in aerosol cans and refrigerants that were responsible. Underwater video of oil spewing into the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 opened the public's eyes to the gravity of the largest offshore oil spill in U.S. history.

But a second Documerica project, with professional photographers, would be impossible today, given budget cuts facing the agency and the wariness of industry barring access by photographers.

Lyntha Scott Eiler, 65, shot photographs for Documerica around her then-home in northern Arizona, as well as one of the early emissions testing sites for automobile exhaust in Hamilton County, Ohio. At the Navajo Generating Station in Arizona, Eiler got right down in a strip mine "where the shovels were."

"They weren't afraid of the EPA, so it was, `What else you do you want to get a photograph of?,'" Eiler said. "You probably would have a hard time doing that today."

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Online:

Documerica photos on Flickr: http://bit.ly/2WvpYr

National Archives' Archival Research Catalog: http://1.usa.gov/16zBO5

State of the Environment on Flickr: http://bit.ly/gz2X3r

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Follow Dina Cappiello's environment coverage on Twitter (at)dinacappiello

  • This April 1973 photo released by the U.S. National Archives shows the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority tracks, crossing across Neptune Road in East Boston, Mass., near Logan Airport. The image was taken for the then new Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Michael Phillip Manheim)

  • This photo taken April 14, 2012, shows Neptune Road in the East Boston neighborhood of Boston, which ends at the Logan Airport perimeter. The photo was taken from the same vantage point of an historical image taken for the "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, instituted by the then new Environmental Protection Agency, to document subjects of environmental concern. There was a playground there then. (AP Photo/Michael Dwyer)

  • This photo taken April 14, 2012, shows a Blue Line subway train passing Neptune Road in the East Boston neighborhood of Boston. The same view was photographed for the "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, instituted by the then new Environmental Protection Agency to document subjects of environmental concern. The residential neighborhood that was once there is gone. (AP Photo/Michael Dwyer)

  • This photo, taken between 1972 and 1977 and released by the U.S. National Archives, shows a truck moving through a residential neighborhood on Lovell Street, adjacent to Logan Airport in Boston. The street ends at the Wood Island Transit Station near construction on a building to be leased to the food preparation business for one of the airlines. The image was taken for new Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Michael Philip Manheim)

  • This May 1973 photo released by the U.S. National Archives shows neighborhood youngsters in the playground adjacent to Logan Airport at the end of Neptune Road in the East Boston neighborhood of Boston. The photo was taken for the "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, instituted by the then new Environmental Protection Agency to document subjects of environmental concern. The neighborhood was being threatened by encroaching construction for Logan Airport and related services. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Michael Phillip Manheim)

  • This August 1973 photo released by the U.S. National Archives shows the Donald Cook Nuclear Power Plant still under construction on Lake Michigan at Bridgman, Mi. The photo was taken for the "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, instituted by the then new Environmental Protection Agency to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Paul Sequeira)

  • This photo taken April 20, 2012, shows the Cook Nuclear Plant in Bridgman, Mich., along Lake Michigan's eastern shoreline. The photo was taken from the same vantage point of an historical image taken for the "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, instituted by the then new Environmental Protection Agency, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/M. Spencer Green)

  • This photo taken April 13, 2012, shows people sunning themselves on a beach on Lake Charles, La., opposite a cement terminal on the far side of the lake near the site of the old Olin-Matheison Plant. The view from the same vantage point was photographed for "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, instituted by the then new Environmental Protection Agency, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/Gerald Herbert)

  • This June 1972 photo released by the U.S. National Archives shows a sunrise over the Olin-Mathieson Plant on the Calcasieu River in Calcasieu Parish, La. The photo was taken for the "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, instituted by the then new Environmental Protection Agency to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Marc St. Gil)

  • This photo taken in July 1972 shows part of the Olin Mathieson Plant on the far side of Side of Lake Charles, La. The photo was taken for the "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, instituted by the then new Environmental Protection Agency to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Marc St. Gil)

  • This photo taken April 13, 2012, shows a view of a plant near the approximate site of the former Olin-Matheison plant in Lake Charles, La. The view was originally photographed for "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, instituted by the then new Environmental Protection Agency, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/Gerald Herbert)

  • This April 1973 photo released by the U.S. National Archives shows the Publisher's Paper Company at Oregon City, Ore., on the Willamette River. Together with Crown-Zellerbach Corporation, this company led a campaign to clean up the river. The photo was taken for the then new Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, David Falconer)

  • This photo taken on April 10, 2012, shows the Publisher's Paper Company mill, now closed, on the Willamette River in Oregon City, Ore. The view was photographed from the similar vantage point of an archival 1973 photo taken for the then new Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/Don Ryan)

  • This June 1973 photo released by the U.S. National Archives shows an "Out of Gas" sign at the gas station at the intersection of SW Jefferson and 18th St. in Portland, Ore., during the fuel shortage. Similar signs cropped up all over the Portland area during the fuel crisis. The image was taken for the then new Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo, U.S. National Archives, David Falconer)

  • This photo taken April 10, 2012, shows a restaurant sign on the corner of 18th St. and Jefferson shown in Portland, Ore., with a public transportation stop in the background. The photo was from the same vantage point of a June 1973 photo taken for the then new Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to document subjects of environmental concern, which then showed an "Out of Gas" sign at the corner gas station during the fuel crisis. (AP Photo/Don Ryan)

  • This Nov. 1972 photo released by the U.S. National Archives shows the industrialized port area of Corpus Christi, Texas. The image was taken for the then new Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Marc St. Gil)

  • This photo taken Saturday, April 14, 2012, shows a view of Lowell Street in the East Boston neighborhood of Boston near Logan Airport. The same view was photographed for the "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, instituted by the then new Environmental Protection Agency to document subjects of environmental concern. The residential neighborhood that was once there is gone. (AP Photo/Michael Dwyer)

  • This photo taken April 13, 2012, shows the industrialized port area of Corpus Christi, Texas. The view was photographed from the same vantage point of an archival November 1972 photo, taken for the then new Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)

  • This July 1973 photo released by the U.S. National Archives shows Clark Avenue and the Clark Avenue Bridge in Cleveland, Ohio, looking east from west 13th Street, are obscured by the smoke from heavy industry. The image was taken as part of the new Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Frank J. Aleksandrowicz)

  • This photo taken April 13, 2012, shows a one-time chemical drainage ditch now overgrown with vegetation photographed at the location of an historic photo taken in 1973 near the Pittsburgh Paint and Glass plant in Lake Charles, La., for the Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to documents subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/Gerald Herbert)

  • This photo taken on April 12, 2012, shows a view down Clark Avenue from West 13th Street in Cleveland, Ohio. The same view was photographed in 1973 for the "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, instituted by the then new Environmental Protection Agency to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/Amy Sancetta)

  • This 1973 photo released by the U.S. National Archives shows contaminated water in a drainage ditch behind the Pittsburgh Glass Company near Lake Charles, Calcasieu parish, La. The image was taken for the then new Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Marc St. Gil)

  • This May 1973 photo released by the U.S. National Archives shows ongoing urban development and construction on lower Manhattan's West side, just north of the World Trade Center, right, in New York. The image was taken for the then new Environmental Protection Agency's "Documerica" program, 1972-1977, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Wil Blanche)

  • This photo taken April 10, 2012, shows urban development in lower Mahanattan with the World Trade Center, right, in New York. It was photographed near the location of an historic 1973 photo, taken for the "Documerica" program, begun in 1972 by the new Environmental Protection Agency to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/Frank Franklin II)

  • This photo taken Thursday, April 12, 2012, shows the Jersey City and New York City skylines with the green area near Liberty State Park in Jersey City, N.J. in the foreground. The image was photographed from the vantage point of an historic 1973 photo, that was part of the "Documerica" program, begun in 1972 by the new Environmental Protection Agency, to document subjects of environmental concern. Before becoming a park, the area was a site where illegal dumping covered much of the empty land. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

  • This March 1973 photo released by the U.S. National Archives shows an illegal dumping area off the New Jersey Turnpike, facing Manhattan across the Hudson River, and north of the land fill area of the proposed Proposed Liberty State Park, N.J. This archival image was taken for the "Documerica" program, begun in 1972 by the new Environmental Protection Agency, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Gary Miller)

  • In this January 1973 photo released by the U.S. National Archives trash and old tires litter the shore at the middle branch of the Patapsco River in the harbor of Baltimore, Md. This archival image was part of the "Documerica" project, begun in 1972 by the new Environmental Protection Agency, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/U.S. National Archives, Jim Pickerell)

  • This photo taken April 16, 2012, shows remnants of a tire and rim along the shoreline of the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Md. This archival image was taken for the "Documerica" program, begun in 1972 by the new Environmental Protection Agency, to document subjects of environmental concern. (AP Photo/Patrick Semansky)

  • Jim Pickerell

    This November 1973 photo provided by the Pickerell family shows "Documerica" photographer Jim Pickerell. About forty years ago the newly established Environmental Protection Agency sent an army of nearly 100 photographers across the country for the "Documerica" program to capture images of environmental concern at the dawn of environmental regulation. (AP Photo/Pickerell Family)

  • Jim Pickerell

    This photo taken April 12, 2012, shows "Documerica" photographer Jim Pickerell, 75, of Bethesda, Md., at his studio in Rockville, Md. About forty years ago the newly established Environmental Protection Agency sent an army of nearly 100 photographers across the country for the "Documerica" program to capture images of environmental concern at the dawn of environmental regulation. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin)

  • This November 1972 photo provided by the subject shows "Documerica" photographer Lyntha Scott Eiler in Monument Valley on the Navajo Reservation in Arizona. About forty years ago the newly established Environmental Protection Agency sent an army of nearly 100 photographers across the country for the "Documerica" program to capture images of environmental concern at the dawn of environmental regulation. Eiler photographed work and homes on Navajo and Hopi reservations in Arizona. (AP Photo)

  • Lyntha Scott Eiler

    This undated photo provided by the subject shows "Documerica" photographer Lyntha Scott Eiler. About forty years ago the newly established Environmental Protection Agency sent an army of nearly 100 photographers across the country for the "Documerica" program to capture images of environmental concern at the dawn of environmental regulation. Eiler photographed work and homes on Navajo and Hopi reservations in Arizona. (AP Photo)

  • Jack Corn

    This 1970's photo provided by the Corn family shows "Documerica" photographer Jack Corn. About forty years ago the newly established Environmental Protection Agency sent an army of nearly 100 photographers across the country for the "Documerica" program to capture images of environmental concern at the dawn of environmental regulation. Corn focused his lens on the plight of the American coal miner. (AP Photo/Corn Family)

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