BELLEFONTE, Pa. -- The trial of Jerry Sandusky, which will begin Monday when prosecutors and his lawyer make opening statements before a central Pennsylvania jury, will probably be over in a few weeks.
But when it comes to getting to the bottom of what happened, it will definitely not be the final word.
Testimony in the child sex abuse case will focus on the 52 counts and 10 accusers for which the 68-year-old former Penn State assistant football coach could, if convicted, spend the rest of his life behind the bars of a state prison.
There are many other questions, however, being asked in a number of forums that would have to be answered for the complete story to come to light.
First and foremost, the state attorney general's office has repeatedly indicated it has an "active and ongoing" related investigation, and the mere existence of the open investigation suggests additional criminal charges could result.
The university has said its president has been in talks with state prosecutors about when he will appear before a grand jury to answer questions, and Penn State disclosed last month that it would cover legal expenses of eight employees who also received subpoenas this year.
Citing a gag order, a spokesman for the attorney general declined to comment on the current status of the investigation, which is also obscured by the secrecy rules that govern operation of investigative grand juries in the state.
There also clearly is a federal investigation, but there are few details beyond the fact that Penn State said that in February it had been issued a wide-ranging subpoena from the U.S. attorney's office in Harrisburg, seeking computer records and other information. Amanda Endy, a spokeswoman for the office, said Thursday that federal prosecutors have not commented on the topic and declined a request to discuss any update.
The state grand jury that investigated Sandusky reported one accuser claimed to have been sexually abused while attending bowl games with Sandusky in Florida or Texas, which could raise legal issues best addressed by the federal system.
Role: Former assistant football coach and founder of The Second Mile charity for children, accused of molesting boys over a 15-year period. Background: Arrested in November after a long investigation by a statewide grand jury. He had been a very successful defensive coach for the Nittany Lions for 30 years, and prosecutors say he used his fame in the community to attract victims. Charges: Involuntary deviate sexual intercourse, indecent assault of a young child, unlawful contact with minors, corruption of minors, endangering the welfare of children. Status: Awaits trial, with jury selection scheduled for Tuesday.
Role: Married to Jerry Sandusky. Background: Dottie Sandusky has stood by her husband, posting his bail, accompanying him to court proceedings and issuing a statement in December that proclaimed his innocence and said accusers were making up stories. She is not charged.
Role: Penn State athletic director, on leave while he fights criminal charges for actions related to the Sandusky scandal. Background: Curley fielded a complaint about Sandusky in a team shower with a boy in early 2001, and told a grand jury he instructed Sandusky not to be inside Penn State athletic facilities with any young people. Charges: Failure to properly report suspected child abuse and perjury for lying to the grand jury. He's not on trial with Sandusky, denies the allegations and is seeking to have the charges dismissed.
Role: Penn State vice president for business and finance, now retired. Background: Schultz told the grand jury that head coach Joe Paterno and assistant Mike McQueary reported the 2001 shower incident "in a very general way" but did not provide details. Charges: Failure to properly report suspected child abuse and perjury for lying to the grand jury. He's not on trial with Sandusky, denies the allegations and is seeking to have the charges dismissed.
Role: Assistant Penn State football coach. Was a graduate assistant in 2001, when he says he witnessed Jerry Sandusky and a boy naked together in a team shower. McQueary took his complaint to Paterno, who alerted university administrators. Background: McQueary testified at a court hearing in December that he "believed Jerry was sexually molesting" the boy and "having some type of intercourse with him."
Role: Defense attorney for Jerry Sandusky. Background: Amendola has been second-guessed for allowing Sandusky to go on network television and speak at length with a reporter for The New York Times after his arrest. Has won several legal battles for Sandusky, including getting him released on bail and fighting the prosecution's effort to have the case heard by a jury from outside the State College area. His office is in State College.
Role: Another defense attorney for Jerry Sandusky. Background: Rominger suggested in media interviews that Sandusky might have been teaching "basic hygiene skills" to some of the youths, such as how to put soap on their bodies. His office is in Carlisle.
Role: Lead prosecutor. Background: McGettigan, currently senior deputy attorney general, is a veteran prosecutor with stints in the Philadelphia and Delaware County district attorneys' offices and the U.S. attorney's office. McGettigan prosecuted John du Pont, the chemical fortune heir who killed an Olympic gold medal-winning wrestler at his palatial estate in 1996. He's known as an aggressive, feisty lawyer.
Role: Judge presiding over Sandusky's trial. Background: Cleland is a semi-retired senior judge from McKean County in western Pennsylvania. Known as courteous and fair-minded, Cleland previously chaired a state panel that investigated a nationally reported scandal in Luzerne County involving the trading of juvenile-detention suspects for cash.
Role: The longtime football coach was told by McQueary in 2001 that he saw Sandusky and Victim No. 2 in a shower on the Penn State campus and, in turn, told Curley and Schultz. Background: The head coach at Penn State from 1966 through 2011, and major college football's winningest, he offered to resign at the end of the 2011 season amid the uproar after Sandusky's arrest Nov. 6. The Penn State Board of Trustees, however, ousted him for what was called his "failure of leadership" surrounding allegations about Sandusky. He died of lung cancer Jan. 22.
Role: Married to Paterno for almost 50 years, she raised five children with him and passionately defended her husband during the scandal and after he died. It's unclear whether she might testify.
Role: Now the governor of Pennsylvania, he was attorney general when the investigation into Sandusky was launched by state prosecutors. Background: Corbett is an ex-officio member of the Penn State Board of Trustees, although he did not actively participate until after Sandusky was charged in December.
Role: Pennsylvania attorney general, whose office is prosecuting Sandusky. Background: A career prosecutor in the Pittsburgh area, Kelly inherited the Sandusky probe from Corbett when she was confirmed as his temporary successor as attorney general. She leaves office in January.
Role: Pennsylvania State Police commissioner. Background: Noonan garnered national attention two days after Sandusky's arrest when he criticized Paterno, a Penn State and sports icon, for failing his "moral responsibility" to do more when McQueary told him of the 2001 shower incident.
Role: Former CEO of The Second Mile, the charity Jerry Sandusky founded. Background: Raykovitz led the charity for almost 30 years and was a longtime friend of Sandusky's. Raykovitz testified before the grand jury that recommended indicting Sandusky on child abuse charges. He resigned from The Second Mile soon after the scandal broke, and board members later complained that Raykovitz hadn't told them enough about earlier allegations against Sandusky.
*captions via AP
Penn State has spent millions of dollars already on its own investigation into the matter, led by former federal judge Louis Freeh, who spent eight years as FBI director. That report is expected to be issued after the Sandusky criminal trial ends, perhaps in August, and should add substantially to what is known about the scandal.
"They've interviewed over 400 current and former employees from numerous departments, such as the academic, administrative, and athletic departments; current and past trustees," university spokesman Dave La Torre said Thursday. He said the objective was to figure out how the alleged crimes occurred and recommend changes, and to review Penn State's handling of sex crimes and misconduct.
Both the Big 10 Conference and the NCAA have contacted Penn State to indicate their interest in the matter. A Big 10 spokesman said Friday its review was ongoing and could not provide a status update.
The NCAA launched its inquiry into potential rules violations in November, asking Penn State to explain how it applied "institutional control" in the mater, whether school officials followed their policies on honesty and ethical conduct, and asking what steps have been taken to prevent a similar episode.
On Thursday, the NCAA issued a statement saying the school was still collecting information from a special investigative counsel and that when the school's investigation was complete, the school would likely respond to NCAA president Mark Emmert's original questions. The results could lead to a formal NCAA investigation into possible rules violations.
La Torre said both the NCAA and Big 10 have told the university they would wait until Sandusky's trial has ended before any formal investigations are launched.
The U.S. Department of Education has been looking into whether the school violated the Clery Act, which requires reporting of crimes on campus, in the case of the Sandusky allegations.
La Torre said that as part of the Clery Act review, Penn State has turned over a large number of documents and files and made its employees available to answer questions and discuss procedures. Last month Penn State disclosed it had hired someone to train and monitor its employees to comply with the Clery Act.
An Education Department spokesman, Chris Greene, declined to comment Thursday on the status of that investigation.
The Second Mile, a charity for at-risk youth founded by Sandusky in 1977, and where prosecutors allege he met and groomed alleged victims, had announced a Philadelphia law firm was conducting an internal investigation with an eye toward recommending changes in its future operations.
But two weeks ago The Second Mile announced it was seeking court approval to cease operations and transfer programs to a Texas-based youth ministry for abused and neglected children.
It's not clear what that has meant for the future of its investigation, including whether any results will be made public. Messages seeking comment on the topic from David Woodle, The Second Mile's interim president, were not returned.
Two Penn State administrators are awaiting trial on charges they failed to properly report suspected abuse and lied to the grand jury investigating Sandusky. The pending charges raise the prospect that investigators under the attorney general's office may be continuing to look into that matter, which commonly occurs after charges are filed and before trial.
Finally, several plaintiff's lawyers have surfaced, although only one has filed a complaint, in Philadelphia. That case is on hold until Sandusky's trial wraps up, and other lawyers also have indicated they are holding back until a verdict is reached.
Civil litigation has a lower burden of proof than criminal cases and could potentially force Sandusky to undergo questioning under oath. That process might produce information that none of the other probes will reveal, said Richard Serbin, an Altoona lawyer who has successfully pursued sex abuse lawsuits against the Catholic Church in Pennsylvania.
"There's not only Sandusky, but there are those individuals or legal entities that may have knowledge or should have had knowledge and failed to take appropriate action," Serbin said.
How much public information civil litigation might produce remains to be seen - only a small percentage of such lawsuits go to trial, Serbin said.
Associated Press writers Michael Marot in Indianapolis and Genaro Armas contributed to this report.