Whether mathematically-inspired or not, optical illusions in art are more common than you may think. Dutch graphic artist M.C. Escher, thought to be one of the first artists to heavily incorporate optical illusions in his work, inspired many artists like Jos de Mey during his early 20th century career.
Escher lacked formal instruction in mathematics but drew on the visual appeal of geometric figures to create distorted perspectives in his woodcuts and lithographs. His use of impossible objects and multidimensional planes in some of his more famous works such as "Relativity" continues to influence visual artists who borrow characters and themes from his repertoire.
Although the styles and techniques used in artistic optical illusions have changed since Escher's time -- from Nicholas Chardon's simplistic geometric work to Jonathon Earl Bowser's fantastical dreamscapes -- one thing remains the same and that's the mind-boggling feats of perspective.
Check out Escher's amazing work, along with that of nine other optical illusion artists, in the gallery below.