02/13/2013 09:59 am ET Updated Apr 15, 2013

Sugar Limits In Drinks? Health And Consumer Advocates Push For Regulations

By Lisa Baertlein

Feb 13 (Reuters) - Anti-obesity advocates who want to curb Americans' sugar habit on Wednesday asked the government to set a safe level for added sugars in soda and other beverages.

The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), which is leading the regulatory push, has been urging the government take actions to reduce sugar consumption by Americans since the late 1970s.

The consumer group's 54-page regulatory petition filed with the Food and Drug Administration on Wednesday is part of a broad public health campaign to trim waistlines in the United States, where more than two-thirds of adults and nearly one-third of children aged 2 to 19 are overweight or obese.

Sugar-sweetened drinks are a significant source of extra calories in the U.S. diet and are closely linked with weight gain, which often accompanies serious and costly illness such as diabetes and heart disease.

If history holds true, the latest request will not result in swift action from the FDA. The American Beverage Association (ABA) and other industry groups have aggressively, and often successfully, fought efforts to reduce sugary drink consumption via regulation or taxes. Among other things, industry has said that such efforts unfairly blame a single product for the nation's obesity crisis.

CSPI Executive Director Michael Jacobson, hopes Wednesday's action will force soda makers to change their ways.

"As currently formulated, Coke, Pepsi, and other sugar-based drinks are unsafe for regular human consumption," Jacobson said. "The FDA should require the beverage industry to re-engineer their sugary products over several years, making them safer for people to consume, and less conducive to disease."


Americans, on average, consume 18 to 23 teaspoons of added sugars each day, according to data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. That's 300 to 400 calories worth of added sugars daily, significantly more than experts consider healthy.

The American Heart Association advises consuming no more than 6 teaspoons of added sugars per day for women and no more than 9 teaspoons for men.

A typical 20-ounce bottle of soda contains about 16 teaspoons of sugars, often from high-fructose corn syrup.

A Tufts University review of studies published over 17 years found that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was the most consistent dietary factor associated with weight gain.

The ABA, the soda industry group, has challenged such links, saying obesity rates have risen even as U.S. consumption of full-calorie sodas has declined.

Americans on average drink 44.6 gallons of soft drinks each year, down from a peak of 54 gallons in 1998, according to Beverage Digest. Diet drinks, water and teas now account for a bigger portion of the soda industry's sales than sugary drinks, fueled by consumer health concerns.

CSPI and its supporters, which include dozens of scientists, doctors and public health departments, hope to convince the beverage companies to make an even bigger shift to low-calorie sugar substitutes.

FDA classifies high-fructose corn syrup and other sugars as "generally recognized as safe." That classification is based on scientific consensus that the ingredient is not harmful under the intended conditions of use.

Scientific consensus is that added sugars are unsafe at current consumption levels, CSPI said.

CSPI's petition asks FDA, which oversees most food products, to set a safe level for added sugars in beverages and to require that the limits be phased in over several years.


CSPI has made similar FDA requests before.

The nonprofit sued the agency in 2005 for failing to set sodium limits for food - a move health experts say would help save thousands of lives each year. FDA has not yet set such limits, but food makers have lowered sodium in some products with varying degrees of success.

CSPI scored a victory, though it took years, when FDA required that artery-clogging artificial trans fat be included in food labels starting in 2006. That effort, along with state and city trans fat bans, resulted an a sharp decline in use.

"The lesson from these things is that it takes forever to move things in Washington," CSPI's Jacobson said.

Public health campaigners have a mixed record when it comes to other efforts to cut the consumption of sugary drinks.

In 2006, after a long battle, Coca-Cola Co, PepsiCo Inc and Dr. Pepper Snapper Group Inc surrendered to pressure and agreed to remove high-calorie sodas from U.S. public schools.

New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg's first-of-its-kind ban on super sized sugary drinks in restaurants and other eateries is scheduled to start in March. Industry is challenging the ban, calling it an unconstitutional overreach that burdens small businesses and infringes upon personal liberty.

The soft drink industry has a strong record of defeating high-profile efforts to tax sugary beverages, and two separate ballot measures recently fizzled in California.


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