SAO PAOLO -- A man who prosecutors accused of masterminding the killing of two Amazon activists in northern Brazil in 2011 was acquitted by a jury on Thursday.

Jose Rodrigues Moreira was acquitted due to insufficient evidence, said Edmundo Rodrigues Costa, the national coordinator of the Catholic Land Pastoral watchdog group that tracks land-related violence. Costa said prosecutors plan to appeal.

But the panel found two others, Lindonjonson Silva Rocha and Alberto Lopes do Nascimento, guilty of carrying out the killings of the activists. Rocha was sentenced to 42 years and eight months and Nascimento got 45 years. Costa said their attorneys will appeal those rulings as well.

Jose Claudio Ribeiro da Silva and his wife, Maria, were gunned down near a reserve in the jungle state of Para, where they taught farmers how to use land in a sustainable manner. Para is among Brazil's most violent and lawless states, notorious for land-related violence, contract killings, slave-like labor conditions and wanton environmental destruction.

"The verdict was to a certain point a positive one because those who shot the guns were convicted," Costa said. "But the verdict unfortunately again showed that those who order people killed enjoy impunity."

Phone calls to the courthouse in the city of Maraba, where the trial was held, and to the local prosecutor's office, went unanswered.

The Silvas had reported illegal loggers to police and federal prosecutors, and confronted powerful interests that destroy the forest to sell timber, or to clear land for cattle or soybeans.

Prosecutors accused Moreira of ordering the killings because the Silvas opposed the eviction of three families occupying his land in the Nova Ipixuna reserve.

Last month, the Land Pastoral said the number of rural activists killed in the country rose 10 percent from 2011 to 2012, with most deaths occurring in the Amazon region.

It said in a report that illegal logging and the resulting conflicts were responsible for the majority of the 32 slayings of local activists in Brazil last year.

The Land Pastoral group says 1,566 rural activists were killed in Brazil from 1985-2012.

In Brazil, killings over land are common and seldom punished, as powerful landowners clash with farmers and others for control of lucrative farming and logging land.

The slayings are mostly carried out by gunmen hired by loggers, ranchers and farmers to silence protests over illegal logging and land rights in the environmentally sensitive region.

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  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Diceros sumatrensis</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Sumatran rhino <strong>Category:</strong> Rhino <strong>Population: </strong> < 250 individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Hunting for horn -used in traditional medicine

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Eleutherodactylus thorectes</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Macaya Breast-Spot Frog <strong>Category:</strong> Frog <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat destruction due to charcoal production and slash-and-burn agriculture Credit: <a href="http://www.robindmoore.com">Robin Moore</a>

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Red-Finned Blue Eye <strong>Category:</strong> Freshwater Fish <strong>Population: </strong>2,000 - 4,000 Individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Predation by introduced species

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Rafetus Swinhoei</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Red River Giant Softshell Turtle <strong>Category:</strong> Turtle <strong>Population: </strong>4 known individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Hunting for consumption and habitat destruction and degradation as a result of wetland destruction and pollution

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Neurergus kaiseri</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Luristan newt <strong>Category:</strong> Newt <strong>Population: </strong> < 1000 mature individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Illegal collection for pet trade

  • List Provided By Zoological Society Of London/ International Union For Conservation Of Nature

    <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Poecilotheria metallica</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Peacock Parachute Spider <strong>Category:</strong> Spider <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat loss and degradation as a result of deforestation, firewood collection and civil unrest

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Atelopus balios</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Rio Pescado Stubfoot Toad <strong>Category:</strong> Toad <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Chytridiomycosis and habitat destruction due to logging and agricultural expansion

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Johora Singaporensis</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Singapore Freshwater Crab <strong>Category:</strong> Crab <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat degradation - reduction in water quality and quantity

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Abies beshanzuensis</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Baishan Fir <strong>Category:</strong> Conifer <strong>Population: </strong>5 mature individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Agricultural expansion and fire

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Actinote zikani </em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>None <strong>Category:</strong> Butterfly <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown, one population remaining <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat degradation due to pressure from human populations

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Aipysurus foliosquama</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Leaf Scaled Sea-Snake <strong>Category:</strong> Sea snake <strong>Population: </strong> Unknown, two subpopulations remain <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Unknown - likely degradation of coral reef habitat

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Amanipodagrion gilliesi</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Amani Flatwing <strong>Category:</strong> Damselfly <strong>Population: </strong> < 500 individuals est. <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat degradation due to increasing population pressure and water pollution

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Antilophia bokermanni</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Araripe Manakin <strong>Category:</strong> bird <strong>Population: </strong>779 individuals (est 2010) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat destruction due to expansion of agriculture and recreational facilities and water diversion

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> Antisolabis seychellensis <strong>Common Name: </strong> Seychelles Earwig <strong>Category:</strong> Earwig <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Invasive species and climate change

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> Aphanius transgrediens <strong>Common Name: </strong>None <strong>Category:</strong> Freshwater fish <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Competition and predation by Gambusia and road construction

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> Ardeotis nigriceps <strong>Common Name: </strong> Great Indian Bustard <strong>Category:</strong> Bird <strong>Population: </strong> 50 -249 mature individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat loss and modification due to agricultural development

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> Aproteles bulmerae <strong>Common Name: </strong>Bulmer's Fruit Bat <strong>Category:</strong> Bat <strong>Population: </strong>150 individuals (est) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Hunting and cave disturbance

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> Ardea insignis <strong>Common Name: </strong>White Bellied Heron <strong>Category:</strong> Bird <strong>Population: </strong>70-400 individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat destruction and degradation due to hydropower development

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Astrochelus yniphora</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong> Ploughshare Tortoise / Angonoka <strong>Category:</strong> Tortoise <strong>Population: </strong>440-770 <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Illegal collection for international pet trade

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Aythya innotata</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Madagascar Pochard <strong>Category:</strong> Bird <strong>Population: </strong> Approximately 20 mature individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat degradation due to slash-and-burn agriculture, hunting, and fishing / introduced fish

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Azurina eupalama</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong> Galapagos damsel fish <strong>Category:</strong> Pelagic fish <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Climate Change - oceanographic changes associated with the 1982 / 1983 El Nino are presumed to be responsible for the apparent disappearance of this species from the Galapagos

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Bahaba taipingensis</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong> Giant yellow croaker <strong>Category:</strong> Pelagic fish <strong>Population: </strong> Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Over-fishing, primarily due to value of swim-bladder for traditional medicine - cost per kilogram exceeded that of gold in 2001

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Batagur baska</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong> Common Batagur/ Four-toed terrapin <strong>Category:</strong> Turtle <strong>Population: </strong> Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Illegal export and trade from Indonesia to China

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> Bazzania bhutanica <strong>Common Name: </strong>None <strong>Category:</strong> Liverwort <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat degradation and destruction due to forest clearance, overgrazing and development

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Beatragus hunteri</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Hirola <strong>Category:</strong> Antelope <strong>Population: </strong> < 1000 individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat loss and degradation, competition with livestock, poaching

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Bombus franklinii</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Franklin's Bumble Bee <strong>Category:</strong> Bee <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Disease from commercially bred bumblebees and habitat destruction and degradation

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> Brachyteles hypoxanthus <strong>Common Name: </strong> Northern muriqui <strong>Category:</strong> Primate <strong>Population: </strong> < 1,000 individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat loss and fragmentation due to large-scale deforestation and selective logging

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Bradypus pygmaeus</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Pygmy sloth <strong>Category:</strong> Sloth <strong>Population: </strong> < 500 individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat loss due to illegal logging of mangrove forests for firewood and construction and hunting of the sloths

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Callitriche pulchra</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>None <strong>Category:</strong> Freshwater plant <strong>Population: </strong> Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Exploitation of the species' habitat by stock, and modification of the pool by local people

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Calumma tarzan</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Tarzan's Chameleon <strong>Category:</strong> Chameleon <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat destruction for agriculture

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Cavia intermedia</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Santa Catarina's Guinea Pig <strong>Category:</strong> Guinea Pig <strong>Population: </strong> 40-60 individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat disturbance and possible hunting; small population effects

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Cercopithecus roloway</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Roloway Guenon <strong>Category:</strong> Primate <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Hunting for consumption as bushmeat, and habitat loss

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Coleura seychellensis</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Seychelles Sheath-Tailed Bat <strong>Category:</strong> Bat <strong>Population: </strong> < 100 mature individuals (est 2008) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat degradation and predation by invasive species

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Cryptomyces maximus</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>None <strong>Category:</strong> Fungus <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Limited availability of habitat

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Cryptotis nelsoni</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Nelson's Small-Eared Shrew <strong>Category:</strong> Shrew <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> habitat loss due to logging cattle grazing, fire and agriculture

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Cyclura collei</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Jamaican Iguana <strong>Category:</strong> Iguana <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Predation by introduced species and habitat destruction

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Dendrophylax fawcettii</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Cayman Islands Ghost Orchid <strong>Category:</strong> Orchid <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat destruction due to infrastructure development

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Diomedea amsterdamensis</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Amsterdam Island Albatross <strong>Category:</strong> Bird <strong>Population: </strong>100 mature individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Disease and incidental capture in long-line fishing operations

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Diospyros katendei</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong> None <strong>Category:</strong> Tree <strong>Population: </strong>20 individuals, one population <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> High pressure from communities for agricultural activity, illegal tree felling, habitat degradation due to alluvial gold digging and small population

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Dipterocarpus lamellatus</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>None <strong>Category:</strong> Dipterocarp (tree) <strong>Population: </strong>12 individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat loss and degradation due to logging of lowland forest and creation of industrial plantations

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Discoglossus nigriventer</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong> Hula painted frog <strong>Category:</strong> Frog <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (recent rediscovery in 2011) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Predation by birds and range restriction due to habitat destruction

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Discorea strydomiana</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Wild Yam <strong>Category:</strong> Yam <strong>Population: </strong>200 Individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Collection for medicinal use

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Dombeya mauritiana</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>None <strong>Category:</strong> Flowering plant <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat degradation and destruction due to encroachment by alien invasive plant species and cannabis cultivation

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Eleocarpus bojeri</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>None <strong>Category:</strong> Flowering plant <strong>Population: </strong> < 10 individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Small population and degraded habitat

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Eleutherodactylus glandulifer</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>La Hotte Glanded Frog <strong>Category:</strong> Frog <strong>Population: </strong>Unknown (declining) <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat destruction due to charcoal production and slash-and-burn agriculture

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Eriosyce chilensis</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Chilenito <strong>Category:</strong> Cactus <strong>Population: </strong> < 500 individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Collection of flowering individuals

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Erythrina schliebenii</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Coral Tree <strong>Category:</strong> Flowering tree <strong>Population: </strong> < 50 individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Limited habitat and small population size increasing vulnerability to stochastic events

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Euphorbia tanaensis</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>None <strong>Category:</strong> Semi-deciduous tree <strong>Population: </strong>4 mature individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Illegal logging and habitat degradation due to agricultural expansion and infrastructure development

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Eurynorhynchus pygmeus</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Spoon-Billed Sandpiper <strong>Category:</strong> Bird <strong>Population: </strong> < 100 breeding pairs <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Trapping on wintering grounds and land reclamation.

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Ficus katendei</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>None <strong>Category:</strong> Tree (ficus) <strong>Population: </strong> < 50 mature individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Agricultural activity, illegal tree felling and habitat degradation due to alluvial gold digging

  • <strong>Scientific Name:</strong> <em>Geronticus eremita</em> <strong>Common Name: </strong>Northern Bald Ibis <strong>Category:</strong> Bird <strong>Population: </strong>200-249 mature individuals <strong>Threats To Survival:</strong> Habitat degradation and destruction, and hunting