A collection of old photographs reveals the faces of some of America's earliest brain surgery patients, affording a glimpse into a fascinating chapter of America's medical history.
The haunting, and in some cases disturbing, photos show patients before and after surgery by pioneering neurosurgeon Dr. Harvey Cushing (1869-1939). The black-and-white images -- about 10,000 in all -- were taken between 1900 and 1932 to document medical conditions, and may have been made as part of the patients' medical records. The photographer (or photographers) who took the images remains unknown.
The photos are housed in Yale University's Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library in New Haven, Conn.
Scroll down to view a select few of the photos.
Note: Some of the photos contain graphic imagery.