Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit was a seminal work in shaping thinking about consciousness and history. Steven Spielberg has created the cinematic equivalent of Hegel in Lincoln.
In his classic Life Against Death: The Psychoanalytic Meaning of History, Norman O. Brown glommed upon Freud's concept of polymorphous perversity to describe the rich palette of human instinct.
Even without having looked at the new DSM-5, here are some of new redefinitions that might run through the mind of a layperson who has followed some of the controversies surrounding diagnosis.