A master-class in balanced analysis was elegantly presented by Trita Parsi, founder and current president of the National Iranian American Council, at a recent UN meeting in the Economic and Social Council Chamber (ECOSOC) organized by the Women's International Forum. The topic at hand was, "The Iran nuclear deal - how we got here and what it means." This subject matter could have very well attracted controversy and heated exchange on both sides of the fence, if not handled with care, wisdom, expertise and a mindset that is willing to acknowledge the multiple facets that assemble a somewhat objective reality. Parsi managed to integrate all of these aspects, not by simply explaining the status quo but by highlighting the tremendous impact that the recent nuclear deal with Iran could well have for the entire region and as a result, the international community.
"Diplomacy is making some significant headway," Parsi explained introductorily, referencing the nuclear deal set up between six major powers of the international community and Iran, but without neglecting the fact that the current compromise is no more than an "interim agreement" -- albeit of historic proportion.
It is meant to put on-hold key elements of Iran's nuclear enrichment in exchange for temporary easing on some of the economic sanctions that had been imposed by the U.S., the Security Council and others. The installation of new centrifuges for uranium enrichment that Iran had acquired has been stopped, and the measures in place make it virtually impossible for Tehran to build a nuclear weapon without being detected. In return, Iran will receive partial relief in regard to trade sanctions and renewed access to a number of its frozen currency accounts overseas. In case Iran violates the agreement's terms, the sanctions can be re-employed at any point in time.
"This agreement, although yet to be implemented, is not only referring to Iran's nuclear aspirations, but has an impact on the entire region and the very direction Iran is taking as a country."
Parsi named a number of "decisive factors" that smoothed the way for the most current political breakthrough. "The Iranians recently elected Hassan Rouhani for president, the most moderate person among the candidates. With him, a centrist cabinet came into power that had made numerous proposals to the West before, which had unfortunately failed in the past."
Furthermore, Parsi explained how the Iranians had been cooperating more closely with the U.S. in 2001, only to then be added to the "axis of evil" by former President George W. Bush as a response to the terror attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. on 9/11. This led to hardened political statements in tones that were often infused with hostility. "In the eight years of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's presidency, Iran and the West went in different directions, which could have escalated into a military confrontation." With the election of Rouhani, "there was suddenly someone in power worth investing in by the White House." Parsi was referring here in part to U.S. Secretary of State, John Kerry, "defending the nuclear deal to a very skeptical Congress only yesterday. There is now confidence that Iran delivers."
Parsi stated that the pressure the U.S. administration experienced regarding an optional military intervention in Syria on behalf of the American public, "pushed Obama into deep diplomacy," when he was confronted with the subsequent Iran negotiations. As a result, noted Parsi, Iran which had recently been considered "the most difficult issue within the region" became "low hanging fruit in comparison to the ongoing Israel-Palestine conflict or the dangerous situation still in Syria." Parsi repeated that the second step, the actual implementation of the landmark accord, will be the real difficulty the six negotiating world powers are facing. Earlier this week, expert level talks began in Vienna to work out specific details of implementation. Officials from Iran, The United States, France, Germany, Britain, China and Russia met at the headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the agency that will play a central role in verifying that Tehran carries out its part of the deal.
The interim agreement will also, in Parsi's view, have tremendous implications for Iran within the region, specifically in improving relations with neighboring states. The agreement "implies de-containment, both politically and economically." For some time, Iran has not had a recognized role within the region and the country has been excluded from meaningful participation in many international bodies. Parsi explained that the negotiation process would bring an image change for Iran, certainly a different approach to their policy on Israel, as well as positive, long-term repercussions for many Arabic states. "Nobody is going to lose out in the long run. Iran is not going to have a nuclear bomb, and it doesn't lie in the interest of Israel or Saudi Arabia to continue a perpetual conflict with Iran."
Parsi concluded, "Ultimately, this is about so much more than enrichment or centrifuges. If this agreement can be implemented, it will determine who will define Iran for the next decades. This can be a new beginning for the countries and the people of the Middle East."
Parsi provided valuable lessons in contemporary diplomacy, and reminded the UN audience why the threat of war can no longer be accepted as the "continuation of policy by other means" in the 21st century.