Learn from Johannesburg, South Africa; Abuja, Nigeria; Cali, Colombia; and Mexico City on a variety of actors from non-governmental organizations to universities and privates initiatives that have the capacity to play a major role in measuring impact of public programs.
High levels of youth unemployment may be one of cities' worst nightmares: not only does it signal and perpetuate a struggling economy, but high numbers of disengaged youth can lead to immense frustration across an entire generation, increased crime, and even revolt.
Building affordable housing is only the first step towards inclusive cities. As housing should be seen as an urban strategy to improve the overall quality of life for all citizens, affordable housing must be inclusive by design.
Slums in the Global South are often used as "laboratories of urbanism," where initiatives are experimentally "tried out." While this approach encourages self-invention in slums, it can also be highly controversial to use informal communities as experimental territory.
Colombia's Cali drug cartel was the biggest and richest crime syndicate in the history of crime, generating annual revenues exceeding $7 billion and monopolizing global cocaine markets through much of the 1990s.