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Exons

Further Thoughts on the ENCODE/Junk DNA Debates

James A. Shapiro | Posted 11.18.2012 | Science
James A. Shapiro

The interpretation of the ENCODE data as invalidating the "junk DNA" hypothesis was not a "media failure." It was the explicit conclusion of the ENCODE project scientists published in Nature.

How Natural Genetic Engineering Solves Problems in Protein Evolution

James A. Shapiro | Posted 07.24.2012 | Science
James A. Shapiro

A good way to see how natural genetic engineering facilitates the evolutionary process is to review what we have learned about protein evolution.