Feeling the pressure from protest against the Keystone XL, Obama pulled a fast one: "wait and see" for XL's northern half -- which many claimed as a victory -- and expedited approval of everything else via executive order.
Nearly 30 years later, as climate change takes center stage as the defining issue of our time, many are wondering role civil disobedience might play in creating a tipping point beyond which business as usual will simply no longer be possible.
Pennsylvania Democratic Party gubernatorial candidate and former head of the PA Department of Environmental Protection, Kathleen "Katie" McGinty, has hired powerful PR firm SKDKnickerbocker for her campaign's communications efforts.
This is not idle sky-is-falling speculation. Federal officials assure us the Keystone pipeline, which would transport up to 35 million gallons of tar sands oil a day from Canada to Texas, could spill up to 100 times during its lifetime.
The mid-term outlook for even marginal players in Canadian oil sands looks optimistic. The energy tides may be shifting, however, suggesting that while production may gain steam, Canada's heavy reliance on heavy crude may run off the rail.