Muslims, however have become collateral damage in a multitude of ways by either being put directly in harm's way or putting themselves in harm's way as the only means through which to resist state-sanctioned violence.
Perhaps the most notorious perpetrators of unwarranted spying on Americans is the New York Police Department (NYPD), which continues to establish questionable counter-terrorism and counterintelligence units to spy on New Yorkers despite being repeatedly sued over it.
The use of racial, ethnic and religious profiling by law enforcement is un-American and should end. Targeting people for what they look like or because of their group characteristics is discrimination at its worst and a poor excuse for law enforcement.
Bratton, who has previously led the NYPD and the Los Angeles Police Department, has earned his share of admirers. But his past support for discriminatory policies de Blasio campaigned against makes him a curious choice for commissioner.