So how could a tiny party created a year ago become a major player? Corruption is part of the explanation. Podemos' surge followed a string of high-profile scandals enmeshing members of the two main parties.
Faced with the deterioration of the situation in which Spanish citizens live, it is necessary to find monetary and fiscal policies, and structural reforms, which are different to those applied so far. It is necessary to use the public sector for economic stimulus.
Knowing the truth, paying respect to victims, responding to the expectations and just claims of survivors are part of the civic dialogue that can strengthen democracies like Spain's and make them more legitimate, more enduring, and more stable.
Financed by exuberant foreign bankers, encumbered by huge debt, and trying to dominate a dysfunctional Europe, Spain was an overextended empire that eventually squandered great wealth. There are definite echoes of the past that have come down from this time to modern-day Spain.
Evictions are a real disaster that like tornadoes, hurricanes, and earthquakes, require governments to take immediate and effective action to help solve the desperation and absolute helplessness of their victims.
Spain or Italy: which one is worse off? Economically, Spain; politically, Italy. But since a bad political situation tends to hurt the economy, and a sick economy always poisons politics, the answer could easily be reversed.
Solutions must be contemplated in relation to the magnitude of the problems for which they're destined. And the open-ended problem of the Spanish banking system was, until Saturday, certainly complicated.