California law prohibits the recording--without consent of all parties--of a "confidential communication." (CA Penal Code Sec. 632(a)). Journalists have been taught by lawyers over many years that they should avoid all non-consensual taping of interviews. But lawyers are overly cautious by nature. To anyone who has ever been interviewed by a journalist, it is obvious--in retrospect, perhaps painfully so--that, absent an agreement that the conversation is "off the record," the comments of the interview subject are anything but confidential.
Talking to a reporter on the phone (or in person) is about as open and nonconfidential an exchange as sitting for a live television interview or typing into a blog on a public, unrestricted website. The whole point of a conversation with a print journalist is to provide her with information to be communicated to her paper's entire readership. A genuinely confidential communication with a reporter is the rare exception, not the rule.
The sleaze factor that is associated with surreptitious taping derives, I suspect, from the historic revelations about Richard Nixon's taping of conversations, with both friend and foe, in the Oval Office. Before Nixon gave the practice a bad name, many journalists taped interviews (with or without consent) in order to create the most accurate record possible, not to engage in a game of "gotcha" with sources. Watergate changed the rules of appropriate journalistic inquiry.
The prevailing presumption today is that interviews are not recorded unless all parties to the conversation explicitly agree otherwise. Although this presumption may be a bit quaint in the YouTube era--in which celebrities are always at risk, in public settings, of having a candid moment converted into an embarrassing video that goes viral online--it is, in fact, a presumption strictly observed by all serious journalists.
As it should be. Ethically speaking, there is no adequate reason to tape secretly. But it's important to bear in mind that undisclosed taping by a journalist--or by the person being interviewed by a journalist--is rarely, if ever, illegal.
Peter Scheer, a lawyer and journalist, is executive director of the First Amendment Coalition, www.firstamendmentcoalition.org