Think about the most inspiring piece of art you have ever looked at. Or the most powerful book you have ever read. Or the most moving play or movie you've seen.
Now -- why did you find it so beautiful?
There were probably any number of reasons -- it may have changed the way you thought about things. It might have emotionally affected you. It almost certainly stuck with you afterwards.
But despite the fact that whatever you chose was personal and subjective, there seem to be certain facets of beauty that cut across all genres, times and places. Educator Howard Gardner argues in his book Truth, Beauty and Goodness Reframed that there are three main elements of beauty: we find something beautiful if it is interesting, if it is memorable and if it is has a "pull" to it, leading us to continually come back to it.
In fact, it's that third factor, what he calls the "invitation to revisit," that is the sine qua non of beauty. The most beautiful objects are ones we can't seem to leave alone -- there always seems to be more to them than meets the eye at first glance, and the more we experience them, the more we appreciate them. And Gardner explains that this "invitation to revisit" could arise from several possible factors: "one likes the experience, one has curiosity to learn or to understand better, or one has a feeling of awe..." (53)
But what's fascinating is that two of those elements -- curiosity and awe -- are two of the driving forces behind both science and Judaism. They are what lead us to see their inherent beauty.
The beauty of science was eloquently described by Nobel-Prize winning physicist Richard Feynman, who talked about what he saw when looked at a flower:
As he says, while he could appreciate the surface beauty of a flower as well as anyone else, knowing about the science broadened and deepened his experience: "I see much more about the flower... I could imagine the cells in there, the complicated actions inside, which also have a beauty...It adds...[a]ll kinds of interesting questions which the science knowledge only adds to the excitement, the mystery and the awe of a flower." So a fuller understanding of science gave him a richer sense of beauty. And notice what specifically what enriched it: curiosity and awe.
So how do these two elements give us a sense of beauty both in science and in Judaism?
As Feynman tells us, the more questions we can ask about something, and the more ways we can look it, the deeper our appreciation of it will be. Indeed, curiosity in science almost demands an "invitation to revisit," asking how we can look at the same set of facts in a new way, and looking to see how an answer to one question leads to a whole host of new ones.
But that same process also guides the study of Jewish texts.
Study in Judaism begins with the Torah. But when we study Torah, we are not supposed to stop at the p'shat, the simple, literal level of the text. Instead, we are primarily seeking to create drashot, inerpretations of the text. We are asking, "What are the unspoken assumptions here? What other questions do we need to ask? What are the different ideas that this text is trying to teach, and how many different ways can we read it?"
We do this because while the text is static, we are dynamic. While we read the same words each day, each week, and each year in our prayerbook and in our Torah, what we take away from them changes. We revisit the same texts because when we repeatedly come back to the same words, we find new meaning in them and new ways to discover values that guide our actions. The text is the always the same -- but we are not.
And so curiosity, asking new questions, always wondering "What else could this mean?", leads us to revisit both scientific data and Jewish texts, and elevates our sense of beauty in both realms.
Science easily gives us a deep sense of wonder, whether we are looking out onto the vast reaches of space, or are examining how our mind works, or are wondering how the variegated species on this earth arose. But even as we intellectually explore those ideas, there will always be an emotional aspect to that experience that we cannot describe in words.
After all, when we feel a moment of awe, we are not seeking to analyze or describe it. Our most powerful experiences, our most wondrous moments, our most significant encounters simply cannot be put into words, let alone dissected and scrutinized. Indeed, it is that very inability to describe those experiences that makes them so beautiful.
[I]n religious and artistic thinking, the disparity between that which we encounter and that which is expressed in words and symbols, no words and symbols can adequately convey. In our religious situation we do not comprehend the transcendent; we are present at it, we witness it. Whatever we know is inadequate; whatever we say is an understatement. We have an awareness that is deeper than our concepts; we possess insights that are not accessible to the power of expression...
The roots of ultimate insights are found...not on the level of discursive thinking, but on the level of wonder and radical amazement, in the depth of awe, in our sensitivity to the mystery, in our awareness of the ineffable. It is the level on which the great things happen to the soul, where the unique insights of art, religion and philosophy come into being.
[Our experience of God] is the result of wonder and radical amazement, of awe before the mystery and meaning of the totality of life beyond our rational discerning. Faith is the response to the mystery, shot through with meaning; the response to a challenge which no one can forever ignore. (116-117)
So no matter how often we look at a sunset, we will never cease to be amazed by it. No matter how accurately we understand the way babies develop in the womb, when we hold our child for the first time, we will never stop calling it "the miracle of birth." We are simply overwhelmed by those experiences.
And so religion, as Heschel argues, is how we respond to that sense of awe. Religion doesn't begin with trying to prove the existence of God. It doesn't even begin with asking whether we "believe in God" or not. It begins with a moment of mystery. And even if we can scientifically explain that mystery, it will never lose its emotional impact.
Indeed, while curiosity broadens our minds, awe deepens our souls.
Turn it and turn it
Ultimately, it's that combination of curiosity and awe, that mixture of breadth and depth, that joining of head and heart that allows us to see the beauty not only in science, but in Judaism, as well.
In Pirkei Avot, Ben Bag Bag taught that there is always more to Torah than meets the eye. And so we are to "turn it and turn it, because everything is in it." (Avot 5:21) But it's not that the Torah has all the answers -- it's that the more we turn it and turn it, the more we learn about ourselves and our place in the world.
Because there is beauty when we see connections that we had not made before. There is beauty when we discover things we never knew. And there is beauty when we realize just how much we don't know.
After all, the most beautiful things are ones we keep coming back to -- not because the objects themselves have changed, but because we ourselves are constantly discovering new levels of meaning within them.