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Shawn Lawrence Otto

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Obama, Romney Spar Over Climate, Other Science Issues in Online Debate

Posted: 09/06/2012 11:52 am

President Barack Obama and his challenger, Governor Mitt Romney, have answered 14 Top American Science Questions put to them by the grassroots nonprofit I lead, The candidates' answers provide valuable insight into their positions on issues that, while among the most important facing the country, usually get short shrift on the campaign trail. Here they are:

Innovation | Climate Change | Research and the Future | Pandemics and Biosecurity | Education | Energy | Food | Fresh Water | The Internet | Ocean Health | Science in Public Policy | Space | Critical Natural Resources | Vaccination and Public Health

Obama's and Romney's Science Answers

One of the most interesting highlights from the responses is Mitt Romney's shift on climate change, away from his more recent position, which was, "My view is we don't know what's causing climate change on this planet," back toward the view he held in June 2011, shortly after announcing his run for the presidency, when he acknowledged that people are significant contributors to climate change. Four days after he made that statement, Romney was slammed by Rush Limbaugh, who said, "Bye-bye nomination. Another one down. We're in the midst here of discovering that this is all a hoax. The last year has established that the whole premise of man-made global warming is a hoax, and we still have presidential candidates who want to buy into it."

Romney's change in position is unlikely to please his base, many of whom continue to deny the findings of climate science, and to whom Romney has been joking about climate change. The shift signals that he has begun reaching out to more mainstream voters. But after acknowledging the reality and human causes, Romney moves back into denial when he says that there is no scientific consensus. There is. Romney uses this claim to justify rejecting cap-and-trade as a solution to climate change. He prefers to encourage innovation and increase nuclear power in a "no regrets" strategy. So, it's complicated.

The responses are interesting in other ways, as well. Although vaccines don't cause autism, Obama never calls out vaccine-autism science deniers, who are largely on the left, but neither does Romney.

Many readers have expressed surprise at the length and thoughtfulness of Romney's answers. Even so, readers have generally said they feel Obama's answers are more grounded on concrete, well-thought-out policy, but they are disappointed that his answers are largely touting past accomplishments or existing policy positions instead of charting a more visionary path forward on these big issues, like he did in 2008.

The responses are also notable for what they don't say. Some of the questions aren't fully answered when they become politically difficult, and others could really benefit from follow-up discussion; for example, what ideas do the candidates really have for solving problems that cross national boundaries, like climate change and the global financial crisis? Such problems are cropping up more and more in a world with a global economy but no global regulatory structure. When people have a chance to internalize gains and externalize losses, whether they be economic or environmental, they will.

The Top American Science Questions were developed by asking thousands of scientists, engineers, and concerned citizens to submit the most important questions they thought the candidates should be debating but weren't. then worked with several leading U.S. science organizations, including the National Academies, the AAAS, the Council on Competitiveness, IEEE-USA, the Union of Concerned Scientists, and others listed on the site to refine those questions into the final 14 that the group universally agreed were the most important. Barack Obama and John McCain answered similar questions in 2008. is a grassroots nonprofit organization funded by small individual donations and run by volunteers. Its supporters include more than 40,000 scientists and engineers, concerned citizens, about 200 leading universities and science organizations, dozens of Nobel laureates, and notable writers and editors.

Along with its media partner, Scientific American magazine, the group has also asked some three dozen members of Congress who lead key science committees to answer a subset of eight of the 14 questions. To date, just two have responded.

The questions and answers are part of a larger effort to move political dialogue into the 21st century. Candidates readily debate jobs and the economy even though they are not economists; they debate foreign policy and military intervention even though they are not diplomats or generals; they debate faith and values even though they are not priests or pastors. They should be equally comfortable debating the Top American Science Questions that affect all voters' lives, and a forum, unlike an online exchange of answers, allows for pointed follow-up discussions that would be really helpful on these major topics. To date, neither candidate has accepted the invitation to a presidential forum on these important questions. We know the public's interested. 85 percent of likely voters want them to be debating these topics. The fact is that debating the big science issues is what America is all about. We're a country of innovators. We lead the world in science, though that position is now threatened. Having a simple debate on these topics is what leadership and democracy is all about, and it's high time that candidates realize it.

You can sign up to follow ScienceDebate's efforts at

Shawn Lawrence Otto is the co-founder of and a science advocate. His new book is Fool Me Twice: Fighting the Assault on Science in America. Visit him at and like him on Facebook. Join to get the presidential candidates to debate science.

Click through the slideshow below to see's top 14 science questions for the candidates, along with some science questions submitted by the HuffPost community.

What science questions do you want to see the candidates answer? Tweet us @HuffPostScience, using the hashtag #presquiz.

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  • 1. Innovation and the Economy

    Science and technology have been responsible for over half of the growth of the U.S. economy since WWII, when the federal government first prioritized peacetime science mobilization. But several recent reports question America's continued leadership in these vital areas. <strong>What policies will best ensure that America remains a world leader in innovation?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 2. Climate Change

    The Earth's climate is changing and there is concern about the potentially adverse effects of these changes on life on the planet. <strong>What is your position on cap-and-trade, carbon taxes, and other policies proposed to address global climate change--and what steps can we take to improve our ability to tackle challenges like climate change that cross national boundaries?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 3. Research and the Future

    Federally funded research has helped to produce America's major postwar economies and to ensure our national security, but today the UK, Singapore, China, and Korea are making competitive investments in research. <strong>Given that the next Congress will face spending constraints, what priority would you give to investment in research in your upcoming budgets?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 4. Pandemics and Biosecurity

    Recent experiments show how Avian flu may become transmissible among mammals. <strong>In an era of constant and rapid international travel, what steps should the United States take to protect our population from emerging diseases, global pandemics and/or deliberate biological attacks?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 5. Education

    Increasingly, the global economy is driven by science, technology, engineering and math, but a recent comparison of 15-year-olds in 65 countries found that average science scores among U.S. students ranked 23rd, while average U.S. math scores ranked 31st. <strong>In your view, why have American students fallen behind over the last three decades, and what role should the federal government play to better prepare students of all ages for the science and technology-driven global economy?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 6. Energy

    Many policymakers and scientists say energy security and sustainability are major problems facing the United States this century. <strong>What policies would you support to meet the demand for energy while ensuring an economically and environmentally sustainable future?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 7. Food

    Thanks to science and technology, the United States has the world's most productive and diverse agricultural sector, yet many Americans are increasingly concerned about the health and safety of our food. <strong>The use of hormones, antibiotics and pesticides, as well as animal diseases and even terrorism pose risks. What steps would you take to ensure the health, safety and productivity of America's food supply?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 8. Fresh Water

    Less than one percent of the world's water is liquid fresh water, and scientific studies suggest that a majority of U.S. and global fresh water is now at risk because of increasing consumption, evaporation and pollution. <strong>What steps, if any, should the federal government take to secure clean, abundant fresh water for all Americans?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 9. The Internet

    The Internet plays a central role in both our economy and our society. <strong>What role, if any, should the federal government play in managing the Internet to ensure its robust social, scientific, and economic role?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 10. Ocean Health

    Scientists estimate that 75 percent of the world's fisheries are in serious decline, habitats like coral reefs are threatened, and large areas of ocean and coastlines are polluted. <strong>What role should the federal government play domestically and through foreign policy to protect the environmental health and economic vitality of the oceans?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 11. Science in Public Policy

    We live in an era when science and technology affect every aspect of life and society, and so must be included in well-informed public policy decisions. <strong>How will you ensure that policy and regulatory decisions are fully informed by the best available scientific and technical information, and that the public is able to evaluate the basis of these policy decisions?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 12. Space

    The United States is currently in a major discussion over our national goals in space. <strong>What should America's space exploration and utilization goals be in the 21st century and what steps should the government take to help achieve them?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 13. Critical Natural Resources

    Supply shortages of natural resources affect economic growth, quality of life, and national security; for example China currently produces 97% of rare earth elements needed for advanced electronics. <strong>What steps should the federal government take to ensure the quality and availability of critical natural resources?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

  • 14. Vaccination and public health

    Vaccination campaigns against preventable diseases such as measles, polio and whooping cough depend on widespread participation to be effective, but in some communities vaccination rates have fallen off sharply. <strong>What actions would you support to enforce vaccinations in the interest of public health, and in what circumstances should exemptions be allowed?</strong> Credit:, <a href="" target="_hplink">Top American Science Questions 2012 </a>

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