The extensive review this week by a panel assembled by the Food and Drug Administration of the diabetes drug Avandia highlights the critical importance of government regulation and oversight of the drug industry.
Questions have been raised about the safety of Avandia since 2007, and a process to assess these risks versus patient benefits was undertaken by the objective professionals at FDA. But one important question underscores all such inquiry: What happens when the drug safety cop is taken off the beat?
Even though our system of pharmaceutical review and approval is regarded as the most effective in the world, there exists an incredible -- and potentially deadly -- loophole: unapproved drugs.
Recent news stories regarding the recall of 1,500 lots of Johnson & Johnson's children's and infants' Tylenol, Motrin, Zyrtec and Benadryl due to bacterial contamination, and the subsequent suspension of the their manufacture, reinforce the importance of the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulatory oversight over drug products--even years after they have been approved for sale. But due in large part to grandfather provisions going back 50 years, unapproved drugs - those that have been marketed prior to the establishment of today's FDA - are actively promoted, prescribed and taken by millions of patients in the U.S. These drugs escape FDA scrutiny otherwise imposed for all approved prescription and over-the-counter medications.
Most alarming is the fact that unapproved drugs account for nearly 72 million prescriptions per year. Unapproved drugs lack the specific quality controls of an FDA-approved drug, including manufacturing oversight that ensures the appropriate amount of active drug in each tablet, the purity of ingredients and consistency from dose-to-dose. And perhaps equally troubling is the fact that - unlike every other medication available for human consumption in the United States - unapproved drugs are not required to be accompanied by dosing information supported by human clinical studies.
The consequences of this approval gap can be tragic. Hundreds of deaths have been linked to the more than 500 unapproved drugs that FDA eventually banned. Yet to this day dozens of unapproved drugs are marketed under the regulatory radar. As recently as this past March, FDA took action against manufacturers of unapproved sublingual nitroglycerin tablets for treating certain heart conditions. FDA stated that it had seen "significant quality and efficacy problems" with unapproved nitroglycerin products and, as a result, recalled them from the market. Meanwhile, an FDA approved version had been available for years right alongside the unapproved, unregulated, and we now know, unsafe versions.
And the front-line gatekeepers of the nation's prescription drug delivery system--America's pharmacists--are themselves largely unaware of this dual standard for safety among the products on their shelves. A 2006 nationwide study of 500 pharmacists found that 91% of them incorrectly assumed that all of the products they dispense are FDA-approved.
They should be approved, of course. That's why in June of 2006, when I was head of the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, we launched an initiative to finally address unapproved drugs. The Agency issued a Compliance Policy Guide (CPG) to review the safety and efficacy of unapproved drugs that continue to be available, in an attempt to bring these products into the modern world of drug safety with clinical, regulatory and manufacturing oversight.
Certain medications that have never undergone FDA evaluation should continue to be available for patients--when no substitute exists--so long as there are no known safety concerns. Many patients simply have no alternative treatment. But as soon as an approved version becomes available, FDA needs to act immediately and enforce its policies by withdrawing all unapproved formulations from the market. Regulatory oversight alerted us all to the risks associated with certain products manufactured by J&J. If no one is watching, how can we be sure it will never happen again?