When somebody points out that you've said or done something racist, perhaps something that hurt them personally, the game-changing response is first to understand that your intentions are not the centerpiece of the interaction.
The 1800s were of course a time of blatant racism, and many authors reflected that by depicting fictional characters of color in horribly stereotyped ways. Or they omitted those characters entirely, as if the world was populated by whites only.
Last week, Hapoel Tel Aviv F.C. won its first game at the UEFA Champions League. It was an emotional moment. But when people refuse to understand that many of us have differing political views, such happiness is short-lived.