Let's look at the very vocal minority of theoreticians who, without a shred of experimental evidence to support their claims, are now telling us what, in their view, nature is truly made of. They do it mostly through recent books aimed at the average reader. I will survey the most widely read of these books.
It's a sensational breakthrough involving not only our cosmic origins, but also the nature of space: by producing the first-ever detection of Hawking radiation (the process by which inflation's rapid doubling generates these gravitational waves), the BICEP2 team has found the first experimental evidence for quantum gravity.
At first glance, our universe doesn't seem very mathematical at all. The groundhog who trims our lawn has properties such as cuteness and fluffiness -- not mathematical properties. Yet we know that this groundhog -- and everything else in our universe -- is ultimately made of elementary particles such as quarks and electrons.