For the evolutionary community at large, the rules governing the acceptance and rejection of group selection are not a storybook portrayal of science.
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No matter how the groups are formed, no matter how flexible the choice of behaviors, altruism is locally disadvantageous and requires higher-level selection to evolve.
Richard Dawkins did not invent naïve gene selectionism but he spread it far and wide with the publication of The Selfish Gene.
Even when genes function as replicators, they have no bearing upon the group selection controversy because they function as replicators regardless of which level of selection prevails.
The haystack model had an enormous impact on the rejection of group selection and the conceptualization of kin selection as an alternative to group selection.
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