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Freedmen

Cherokee Nations Expels Descendants Of Tribe's Black Slaves

Posted 10.25.2011 | Black Voices

After a long legal fight, the Cherokee nation ousted thousands of descendants of black slaves who had long been official members of the tribe. The...

Nation-Building and Affirmative Action in 19th Century America

Grant Calder | Posted 05.25.2011 | Politics
Grant Calder

In February 1865, shortly before the Civil War ended, Congress established "a bureau of refugees, freedmen and abandoned lands" -- a radical attempt at social change by conservative people.