For most mothers, many of the determining health factors are in play long before the pregnancy. Diet throughout life and the stress level throughout life have a strong bearing on whether the mother has a healthy pregnancy. This is why it's so critical that we have healthy communities.
Their colleagues didn't agree, and Calhoun's conviction stood. But Sotomayor and Breyer's rage at the bias simply pointed up what's long been noted in far too many federal cases, and in the action and behavior of far too many federal prosecutors.
Does race or gender influence decision-making among members of the most respected professions? Several recent, high-profile studies conclude that, yes, even scientists, doctors, and judges are vulnerable to such unconscious bias.
Names matter. Whenever we hear one, we draw a wide range of assumptions about the individual person (or item) in question. Just ask the fish merchant whose stroke of naming genius turned the undesirable Patagonian toothfish into the haute cuisine Chilean sea bass.