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Vannevar Bush

Further Thoughts on the ENCODE/Junk DNA Debates

James A. Shapiro | Posted 11.18.2012 | Science
James A. Shapiro

The interpretation of the ENCODE data as invalidating the "junk DNA" hypothesis was not a "media failure." It was the explicit conclusion of the ENCODE project scientists published in Nature.

Cell Mergers and the Evolution of New Life Forms: Symbiogenesis Rather Than Selection

James A. Shapiro | Posted 10.21.2012 | Science
James A. Shapiro

Since all "higher" and large multicellular organisms, including ourselves, are eukaryotes, the formation of the eukaryotic cell is arguably the single most important evolutionary event since the origin of life.