The wish for fame, so illusory a thing, can kill you. Or at least, it can kill your novel.
In an essay in The Spectator in 1711, Sir Richard Steele wrote that it is "the worst way in the world to Fame, to be too anxious about it." For almost all of us who took up writing in order to be like Ernest Hemingway, this is good advice. The Hemingway goal hasn't worked in my case or, I suspect, in that of most others who have had so markedly specific an intention. Perhaps all others. This is so because such a goal has nothing to do with writing well. It has an awful lot to do with churlish envy, as well as what we know about Hemingway, that he marketed himself almost from the beginning in order to get where he got.
Perhaps his remarkable fame derives from the great interest there has always been in his adventurous life. But I think his adventures had little to do with his ability to write well, as he so often did. In his writing, he sought to please his one greatest fan, which was himself, and for this steadfastness he deserves the congratulation he gets.
When I began writing seriously, I had the theory that writing fiction was a public, not a private, endeavor. Because it is so intense a form of communication, it seemed foolish to me to write without the idea of getting published. Publishing with an established firm, either major or minor, was then the only way of getting your work in front of a public. So, without publishing, there was no communication, and without a public, writing to me wasn't worth doing.
But then, as now, there was a gauntlet that writers had to run, to get to the golden moment of publication by a major U.S. publisher. Like a great moat surrounding an obdurately faceless castle, the army of literary agents floats about, thick with weeds and goo. Any writer who has spent time in these waters has a library of favorite phrases that he or she has learned from agents. "Your work has significant integrity, but needs to be fleshed out a bit more." "Though excellent, it's just not right for us at this time." "You're clearly a writer with great promise, and we wish you the best in your search for representation elsewhere." "Couldn't possibly sell this in today's difficult market." And many more.
The single best one my work ever evoked came from an agent employed by a West Coast firm, both now very long gone. The entirety of his communication to me read, "Wooden, foolish, a little bit trite... But, thanks!"
Two-thirds of the manuscripts published in the United States in any given year by major companies are represented by literary agents, and when you look at the submissions guidelines for most major publishers, they say that they will not consider "unagented" work. So that seems pretty open and shut. You need an agent. Thus you go swimming -- because you must -- in the moat, an experience that, if you do not have a ribald, very well-oiled sense of confident humor, will drive you nuts.
Dealing with the publishers themselves -- should you survive the moat -- is much easier because you have a goal, they are demonstrably interested and they know who you are. It's just you and your editor, and you have a common wish.
There is a second problem with the Hemingway ideal, a problem spelled out succinctly by Richard Steele. If you write to be famous, the quality of your work will almost certainly be damaged by the anxiety with which you're writing. You have the memory of all those great books, written by writers you admire tremendously, and there comes the time -- often -- when you worry that what you do will never come up to the level of what they did. You finish writing a paragraph or two, then you recall Joseph Conrad writing about something similar, or Joyce or Greene or Ellison or Dickens or Austin, Eliot, Nabakov, Baldwin, Faulkner... You stop writing. Or you continue on, the shades of all these others standing behind you, dark, celebrated, bookish shades brimming with talent, writers now long dead except for their great fame. You sense them watching what you're doing.
It doesn't work, and you won't make it.
When I finally understood this and backed off, my writing improved and I started getting published. Right away. It was a simple, one-to-one relationship. Now I pay occasional attention to the idea of fame, when I'm reading about Lady Gaga or Andy Warhol or some such. But I never allow such a thing to affect what I'm doing. Fame is something others bestow upon you. Good writing is what you bestow upon yourself, your own most faithful, loving, and observant fan. If you don't write for the emotional benefit of that reader, I believe your chances for fame will vanish.