Additional tools have been added to the resources intended to help states and regulators navigate compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed Clean Power Plan, for which the rule is projected to be finalized in August. As proposed last summer, the plan regulates carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants under the Clean Air Act and gives states flexibility in how they can meet interim state-level emissions rate goals (2020-2030) and a final 2030 emissions rate limit. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy this week released a plan detailing how energy efficiency financing can help states meet Clean Power Plan goals. And the National Association of Clean Air Agencies (NACAA) released a "menu of options" for states to weigh emissions reductions strategies.
Developed by former air and energy regulators at the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), the NACAA report considers the pros and cons of the 26 options it examines -- including cap-and-trade systems, carbon dioxide taxes, electricity storage, smart grid applications and device-to-device communications -- but does not rank them.
"We understand that each state has different needs and different interest and different politics and different experiences," said Ken Colburn, a senior associate with RAP.
Another analysis by Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions finds that with the right policy choices, compliance with the Clean Power Plan can be cost-effective for states. It outlines tradeoffs of three policy options: using state-specific, rate-based emissions goals, as laid out in the proposed plan, vs. converting that rate into a mass-based standard; identifying how trading emissions credits within state borders or with other states affect the cost of compliance with the rule; and determining whether to include under the rule new natural gas combined cycle units that produce electricity and capture their waste heat to increase efficiency.
"Our analysis shows how important it can be for states to exercise the flexibility afforded to them under the proposed rule," said Brian Murray, the director of the Environmental Economics Program at the Nicholas Institute. "None of the compliance options analyzed raise power sector costs more than a few percent nationally, but these costs could be cut in half or more with a mass-based system and interstate trading of credits like we've already seen in some regions of the U.S."
Meanwhile, a U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) analysis suggests that the proposed Clean Power Plan could put carbon dioxide emissions at about 1,500 million metric tons per year by 2025 -- roughly what they were in 1980. The EIA analysis points to a reduction in coal-fired generation and increase in natural gas-fired generation as the predominant compliance strategy as implementation begins; renewables play a bigger role starting in the mid-2020s, and demand-side energy efficiency plays a "moderate" role in compliance. The federal government's energy statisticians find that the plan would raise electricity prices 4.9 percent above their current trajectory by 2020.
Study: Roughly 5,500 Glaciers Could Disappear
Over the course of this century, Mount Everest could see major losses as the result of climate change, according to a new study in the journal The Cryosphere.
"The worst-case scenario shows 99 percent loss in glacial mass ... but even if we start to slow down emissions somewhat, we may still see a 70 percent reduction," said Joseph Shea, the lead author with the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development in Nepal.
Researchers used previous measurements of glaciers in a region of the Himalayan mountain range that is home to Mount Everest as well as climate change scenarios based on emissions pathways used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to analyze how glaciers have changed and may continue to change as future global temperatures rise. The authors note that melt isn't just the result of rising temperatures -- there's a trend of overall warming "raising the elevation of the freezing level, which has two secondary effects: the area exposed to melt will increase, and the amount of snow accumulation will decrease."
EPA Issues New Air Pollution Rule
The EPA has issued a new regulation to reduce air pollution emissions during power plant startup, shutdown and malfunction (SSM) -- emissions that may adversely affect the health of people in neighboring and downwind communities. The agency clarifies the SSM policy is consistent with the Clean Air Act and recent court decisions.
"The called-for changes to state plans will provide necessary environmental protection and will give industry and the public more certainty about requirements that apply during these periods," the EPA said in a statement. The rule also directs 36 states to submit state implementation plans by November 2016.
The Climate Post offers a rundown of the week in climate and energy news. It is produced each Thursday by Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.