A new federal scientific report, out Tuesday, concluded that global warming is affecting the United States in profound ways and that human activity, namely the burning of fossil fuels, is the primary cause of warming over the past 50 years.
Mandated by Congress and written by a federal advisory panel, the more than 800-page National Climate Assessment further says that the average U.S. temperature has increased 1.3 to 1.9 degrees Fahrenheit since record keeping began in 1895 and that 44 percent of that rise has occurred since 1970. It projects that temperatures will continue to rise 2 to 4 degrees Fahrenheit in coming decades.
"Climate change, once considered an issue for a distant future, has moved firmly into the present," the report notes. "Americans are noticing changes all around them. Summers are longer and hotter. ... Rain comes in heavier downpours."
The report also suggests that human-induced climate change has already increased the number and strength of some extreme events, such as heavy rain. In the Northeast, the amount of precipitation falling in heavy events increased by 71 percent between 1958 and 2012 but only by 5 percent in the West.
Rising global sea levels will threaten water supplies and cause flooding. By 2100, the report projects a sea level increase of 1 to 4 feet. More dire news on sea levels came this week from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. In their Nature Climate Change study, institute researchers saidthat East Antarctica is at a higher risk of melting earlier than previously thought, triggering an unstoppable sea level rise of up to 4 meters (13 feet).
The National Climate Assessment report did find some benefits from climate change--at least in the short term. Crop-growing seasons as well as shipping seasons on the Great Lakes could lengthen. But these benefits will likely be counteracted as food production is hit by rising temperatures and water demands increase.
The report comes just weeks before the Obama administration is set to release proposed rules to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants--an announcement that has the fossil fuel industry paying attention.
Republican Voice for Climate Action
On Tuesday, former Utah Governor Jon Huntsman offered a viewpoint on climate change that contrasts with that of many Republicans. In an opinion piece in the New York Times, he counseled the Republican party to "get back to [its] foundational roots as catalysts for innovation and problem solving" and urged it to tackle the problem of climate change. Huntsman recalled the party's instinct to hedge against risk and to "do now . . . what we have always done well: combine our ingenuity and market forces" to keep greenhouse gas emissions on a trajectory of reductions. He noted that current climate change debate in the party had been "reduced to believing or not believing, as if it were a religious mantra."
Carbon Dioxide Levels Exceed 400 ppm throughout April
The average level of CO2 in the atmosphere topped 400 parts per million (ppm) throughout April, breaking another record, according to data from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
"The rise of carbon dioxide levels above 400 parts per million is an indicator that the problem of global warming is getting worse, not better," said Mark Jacobson, a Stanford atmospheric scientist and environmental engineer. "This means we need to focus more heavily on solutions to this problem, namely converting to wind, water and solar power for all purposes."
The average for April was reported at 401.33 ppm at the Mauna Loa monitoring station in Hawaii. Concentrations of CO2 are rising roughly 2 to 3 ppm a year. The United Nations suggests the concentration of all greenhouse gases should be allowed to peak no higher than 450 ppm this century to maximize chances of limiting global temperature rise.
Department of Energy Debuts Regional Gas Reserves
By late summer, two "gasoline reserves" in New York and New England will be set up to provide short-term relief to first-responders and consumers in the event of extreme weather. The reserves are intended to prevent the fuel shortages experienced in the region after Hurricane Sandy nearly two years ago.
"We think we can help mitigate some of the impacts of sudden, unexpected climate disruptions," said Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz. "The issue of fuel resiliency is certainly one of the important parts of that preparation for extreme weather."
Each of the reserves will hold 500,000 barrels in leased commercial storage terminals. The Department of Energy will maintain the reserves for at least five hurricane seasons. Moniz said the gasoline held in the reserves "will be turned over as part of commercial transactions. We cannot store the same molecules for five years."
The Climate Post offers a rundown of the week in climate and energy news. It is produced each Thursday by Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.