The U.S.-India climate agreement announced Jan. 25 creates a new agreement between the second- and third-largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world but does not have the strength of the U.S.-China climate deal reached last year. Rather than committing India to cap its emissions, the U.S.-India deal called for "enhancing bilateral climate change cooperation" in advance of the United Nations effort to reach an international agreement on emissions and finance in Paris in December.
Specifically, the deal calls for cooperation on reducing emissions of fluorinated gases and beefing up India's promotion of clean-energy investment. The two countries also renewed their commitment to the U.S.-India Joint Clean Energy Research and Development Center, extending by five years funding for research on advanced biofuels and solar energy and building energy efficiency as well as launching new research on smart-grid and grid-storage technology.
"It's my feeling that the agreement that has been concluded between the United States and China does not impose any pressure on us," said Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, adding, "But there is pressure. When we think about the future generations and what kind of world we are going to give them, then there is pressure. Climate change itself is a huge pressure. Global warming is a huge pressure."
The agreements have not bridged the gap in the two countries' perspectives on UN climate talks: The United States wants major emitters to take legal responsibility for climate-change action, but India argues that the United States and other developed countries have not followed through on their own pledges and should not demand that developing countries take on new emissions-reduction responsibilities.
President Moves to Shut Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to Oil Drilling
While proposing to open portions of the Atlantic Ocean to oil and gas extraction, an Obama administration plan would prohibit energy development on nearly 10 million acres off the Alaskan coast. The administration has also proposed setting aside more than 12 million acres in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge as wilderness, squashing opportunities for oil exploration there.
Less than 40 percent of the refuge currently has the wilderness designation, the highest level of protection available for public lands. The president"s plan would block efforts to drill for oil on a 1.5-million-acre portion of the refuge thought to contain up to 10.3 billion barrels of petroleum.
In a press conference, Alaska Republican Sen. Lisa Murkowski said that President Obama has declared "war" on her state. "The fight is on, and we are not backing down."
In a White House blog post, John Podesta, a counselor to the president, and Mike Boots, leader of the White House Council on Environmental Quality, noted that the United States today is the world's number-one producer of oil and natural gas, and that the Coastal Plain of the Arctic Refuge "is too precious to put at risk" of an oil-related accident. "By designating the area as wilderness, Congress could preserve the Coastal Plain in perpetuity -- ensuring that this wild, free, beautiful, and bountiful place remains in trust for Alaska Natives and for all Americans."
Increasing Frequency of La Niña Events Attributed to Climate Change
A new climate-modeling study published in Nature Climate Change suggests that by century's end human-caused climate change will double the frequency of La Niña events -- weather patterns associated with a temperature drop in the central Pacific Ocean -- resulting in floods, droughts, and other extreme-weather events.
Extreme La Niña events might be experienced about every 13 years, rather than every 23 years, as they are now, but not like clockwork, according to lead study author Wenju Cai, a climate scientist at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Aspendale, Australia. "We're only saying that on average, we expect to get one every 13 years," said Cai. "We cannot predict exactly when they will happen, but we suggest that on average, we are going to get more."
The study finds that powerful La Niña events will immediately follow intense El Niño events, causing weather patterns to alternate between wet and dry extremes.
The Climate Post offers a rundown of the week in climate and energy news. It is produced each Thursday by Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.