After weeks of deliberation among representatives of nearly 200 countries, the United Nations climate talks ended with an agreement to extend the life of the Kyoto Protocol. The only global agreement in place to curb greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized nations, it was set to expire at the end of this year. The second phase of the Kyoto Protocol still leaves off the world's two largest emitters -- the United States and China -- and covers no more than 15 percent of the world's carbon emissions.
In addition, the package adopted at Doha includes assurances to address "loss and damage" at the next conference in Warsaw, where richer nations may be financially responsible to poorer nations for failure to reduce emissions. There was also confirmation of a decision made at last year's U.N. climate talks in Durban, South Africa, to work toward adopting a universal climate change agreement by 2015. The extension of the Kyoto Protocol keeps existing climate targets until this new international agreement takes effect in 2020. This agreement would set emissions goals for all nations, whereas the Kyoto Protocol extension establishes emissions cuts for only a handful of industrialized nations, which include Switzerland, Australia and the European Union.
While the U.S. did join in backing the establishment of the universal treaty, several former U.S. presidential aides and advisers say the country's involvement hinges on President Barack Obama's willingness to talk about the issue of climate change. "President Obama needs to talk about climate change and help the American public connect the dots between extreme weather, climate change, our energy policy and the progress we are already making on reducing emissions," said Congressman Edward Markey. "The public will be more accepting of an international climate deal if they understand what we are already doing" to fight global warming.
The outcome of the conference was widely criticized, but some offered glimpses of hope. Michael Jacobs of The Guardian called the talks a start, but noted that 2015 -- the deadline for negotiating the successor to Kyoto -- "will be the moment of truth." Mother Jones, meanwhile, offered a fairly pessimistic assessment of the talks, but called the extension of Kyoto "something"--even though it doesn't include the U.S., China or India. China and the U.S. are to be a clear focus next year, others said. And Connie Hedegaard, European Commissioner for Climate Action described the outcome as crossing "the bridge from the old climate regime to the new system. We are now on our way to the 2015 global deal ... Very intense negotiations lie ahead of us. What we need now is more ambition and speed."
Arctic Report Card Shows Record Lows
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) again released its annual Arctic Report Card, summarizing the latest scientific observations about the region. Of note: 2012's record ice loss follows a fairly unremarkable year temperature-wise -- relative to the previous decade. The report also found that this year's summertime sea ice pack was the smallest ever seen, and a new record low June snow cover extent was set.
The melting of ice, it seems, is also affecting the food chain -- specifically through the creation of phytoplankton, which is experiencing increasing blooms on land and in open water as ice melts. The report suggests that previous estimates of phytoplankton production may have been 10 times lower.
NOAA's report findings come just days after the release of another study showing increased melting of the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets. It found smoke from Arctic wildfires may have contributed to this melting.
Major Brands Focus on Sustainability
With climate and energy policy close to dormant in Congress, a new study finds the majority of the world's largest companies aren't waiting on governments to lower emissions and shift to clean energy. Many -- approximately 56 percent of Fortune 100 and Global 100 companies -- are investing in renewable energy and emission reduction. This comes on the heels of a new list from Climate Counts, which ranks 145 companies' efforts to reduce their carbon footprints. Rankings were based on 16 criteria and included support of progress on climate legislation as well as their ability to communicate their efforts to reduce emissions to consumers.
The Climate Post offers a rundown of the week in climate and energy news. It is produced each Thursday by Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.