Merriam-Webster Inc. has added more than 100 entries to the latest edition of its Collegiate Dictionary. Here are some, along with the year in which Merriam-Webster researchers first found them used in an English-language publication, and their meanings:
Acai (1868): a small dark purple fleshy berrylike fruit of a tall slender palm (Euterpe oleracea) of tropical Central and South America that is often used in beverages.
Carbon footprint (1999): the negative impact that something (as a person or business) has on the environment; specifically: the amount of carbon emitted by something during a given period.
Cardioprotective (1984): serving to protect the heart.
Earmark (15c): a provision in Congressional legislation that allocates a specified amount of money for a specific project, program, or organization.
Fan fiction (1944): stories involving popular fictional characters that are written by fans and often posted on the Internet.
Flash mob (1987): a group of people summoned (as by e-mail or text message) to a designated location at a specified time to perform an indicated action before dispersing.
Frenemy (1977): one who pretends to be a friend but is actually an enemy.
Goji (2003): the dark red mildly tart berry of a thorny chiefly Asian shrub (Lycium barbarum) that is typically dried and used in beverages.
Green-collar (1990): of, relating to, or involving actions for protecting the natural environment. jobs>
Haram (1979): forbidden by Islamic law. foods>
Locavore (2005): one who eats foods grown locally whenever possible.
Memory foam (1987): a dense polyurethane foam that becomes more pliable when in contact with heat.
Missalette (1973): a shortened form of a missal published periodically for congregational use.
Naproxen (1971): an analgesic and antipyretic NSAID C14H14O3 often used in the form of its sodium salt.
Neuroprotective (1987): serving to protect neurons from injury or degeneration. drugs>
Pharmacogenetics (1960): the study of how genetic differences among individuals cause varied responses to a drug.
Physiatry (1947): physical medicine and rehabilitation.
Reggaeton (2003): popular music of Puerto Rican origin that combines rap with Caribbean rhythms.
Shawarma (1953): a sandwich esp. of sliced lamb or chicken, vegetables, and often tahini wrapped in pita bread.
Sock puppet (1959): a false online identity used for deceptive purposes.
Staycation (2005): a vacation spent at home or nearby.
Vlog (2002): a blog that contains video material.
Waterboarding (2004): an interrogation technique in which water is forced into a detainee's mouth and nose so as to induce the sensation of drowning.
Webisode (1996): an episode esp. of a TV show that may or may not have been telecast but can be viewed at a Web site.
Zip line (1984): a cable suspended above an incline to which a pulley and harness are attached for a rider.
Source: Merriam-Webster Inc.