JULIE HIRSCHFELD DAVIS, ASSOCIATED PRESS
WASHINGTON -- Her confirmation all but assured, Supreme Court nominee Elena Kagan neared the end of a final grueling day of Senate questioning Wednesday, fielding GOP challenges on abortion, gays in the military and other divisive issues while sidestepping Democrats' invitations to blast conservative decisions by the court she's hoping to join.
Kagan, prompted by Democratic supporters on the Senate Judiciary Committee, gave a blunt denunciation of "results-oriented judging," the adjusting of judicial reasoning to fit a preconceived conclusion, but she refused to join them in applying the criticism to the current court under Chief Justice John Roberts. "I'm sure that everybody up there is acting in good faith," she said.
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Here's our HuffPost highlight reel of day three of Supreme Court nominee Elena Kagan's confirmation hearing:
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Republicans, despairing of their inability to get President Barack Obama's nominee to reveal her legal views or say anything that might threaten her confirmation, acknowledged as much.
"I assume she will be," said Sen. John Cornyn, R-Texas.
Barring an unexpected turn, Kagan will succeed retiring Justice John Paul Stevens and become the fourth woman in the Supreme Court's history. It would be the first time that three of the court's nine justices were women.
Senators were expecting to finish their questioning of Kagan late Wednesday and hear from several outside witnesses Thursday afternoon.
Sen. Jeff Sessions of Alabama, the top Republican on the panel, said Kagan's careful answers had made it difficult to determine whether she would be more like Roberts or Ruth Bader Ginsburg, referring to the conservative chief justice and to President Bill Clinton's nominee to the high court, generally regarded as a member of its liberal wing.
On one controversial matter, Kagan defended her efforts as a domestic policy aide to Clinton to scale back a GOP-proposed ban on a procedure opponents call partial-birth abortion – something she called "an incredibly difficult issue."
The former president, she said, "thought that this procedure should be banned in all cases except where the procedure was necessary to save the life or to prevent serious health consequences to the woman."
Sen. Orrin Hatch, R-Utah, pressed Kagan about a note she wrote saying it would be "a disaster" if the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists issued a statement saying there was no case in which the procedure was necessary, and about her intervention to prevent the group from doing so.
She responded that the disaster would have been if the organization's statement didn't reflect its full view that in some instances, the procedure was "medically best."
"This was all done in order to present ... both to the president and to Congress the most accurate understanding of what this important organization of doctors believed," Kagan said.
Later, responding to Sen. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., Kagan denied that she had tried to allow the broadest possible practice of the procedure, in line with her own views on abortion.
"It's not true. I had no agenda with respect to this issue," Kagan said.
Questioned by Sen. Tom Coburn, R-Okla., on guns, Kagan said she accepts a recent ruling upholding individuals' rights to possess firearms, but she would not say whether she believed there was a "fundamental right" – meaning one that applies to states as well as the federal government – to bear arms.
A seemingly incredulous Coburn asked Kagan whether she believed in "unalienable rights," such as those referenced in the Declaration of Independence.
"You should not want me to act in any way on the basis of such a belief" in people's rights outside the Constitution and laws, Kagan retorted. "I think you should want me to act on the basis of law."
For the second day in a row, Kagan asserted she would be able to separate her personal and political views from her job as a justice.
"As a judge, you are on nobody's team. As a judge, you are an independent actor," Kagan said.
She also defended her decision as solicitor general not to pursue two cases challenging the constitutionality of the military's ban on openly gay soldiers. Sessions pressed her on that decision, given "your widely publicized opposition to the 'don't ask, don't tell' law" and a statute meant to bolster it.
Kagan said that one of the cases Sessions cited had upheld the law's constitutionality. In the other, after consulting with Pentagon lawyers, she said she made a strategic decision to wait before taking action.
Kagan asserted that in both cases, she had acted "consistently with the responsibility which I agree with you very much that I have, to vigorously defend all statutes, including the statute that embodies the 'don't ask, don't tell' policy."
Democrats used their time with Kagan largely to criticize a recent string of 5-4 decisions by the court, especially its January ruling that struck down long-standing precedent to say corporations and labor unions were free to spend their own money on political activity.
Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse, D-R.I., said justices named by Republican presidents were "driving the law in a different direction by the narrowest possible margin."
"I want to make it clear that I'm not agreeing to your characterizations of the current court. I think that that would be inappropriate for me to do," Kagan said. But she added that she believes the court should seek to make less far-reaching decisions to engender more consensus, which she called "a very good thing for the judicial process and for the country."
Responding to Whitehouse, she cast doubt on a key argument Roberts outlined in the political activity case. In his concurring opinion, the chief justice said legal precedents whose validity is "hotly contested" can be disregarded.
"It should be regarded with some caution," Kagan said of that line of thinking. She said there were "stronger reasons" for overturning precedents, including if they become unworkable, if courts reverse the cases that helped establish them or if new facts make them irrelevant.
But under questioning by Graham, Kagan refused to name a judge she considered an "activist."
Democratic Sen. Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania, thwarted several times in his attempts to get Kagan to say whether she would recommend that the Supreme Court hear specific cases, said he was giving up – and wondered aloud whether there was any way short of opposing her confirmation to get a straight answer.
"It would be my hope that we could find some place between voting no and having some sort of substantive answers, but I don't know that it would be useful to pursue these questions any further," Specter said.