Born in 1601, Fermat was a lawyer by trade and an amateur mathematician. Nevertheless, he is most famous for his so-called "Fermat's Last Theorem," which remained unproved for over 350 years and, according to Geek.com, earned a Guinness World Record as the most difficult mathematics problem to solve.
Fermat framed his theorem thus, according to CNET:
It is impossible for a cube to be the sum of two cubes, a fourth power to be the sum of two fourth powers, or in general for any number that is a power greater than the second to be the sum of two like powers.
Fermat famously scribbled about his theorem in the margin of Greek mathematician Diophantus's Arithmetica, along with the words, "I have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this margin is too narrow to contain."
But it wasn't until 1995 that anyone was able to prove the theorem. This honor goes to Oxford Professor Andrew Wiles, whose voluminous paper detailing his research is "certainly too long for a margin," as the Telegraph points out.
Today, Fermat's Last Theorem states that no three positive integers (a, b, and c) can satisfy the equation a^n + b^n = c^n, when the value of n is any integer greater than two.
On August 17, Google.com featured an illustration of a blackboard with the theorem chalked across it. Looking closely, you could just make out the Google logo beneath the theorem, as if someone had scrubbed "Google" out in a hurry to quickly dash down the theorem in a flash of inspiration. If you scrolled over the logo, the following words appeared: “I have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this theorem, which this doodle is too small to contain.”
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