Nobel Prize 2011 Winners: See Which Ones Are Over 50 (PHOTOS)
-- The economics prize was the last of the six Nobel awards to be announced for 2011. Here are the winners, who will receive their prizes on Dec. 10 in twin ceremonies in Stockholm and Oslo:
_ Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine: American Bruce Beutler and Frenchman Jules Hoffmann shared the award with Canadian-born Ralph Steinman for discoveries about the immune system that opened up new avenues for the treatment and prevention of infectious illnesses and cancer. Steinman died three days before the announcement.
_ Nobel Prize in physics: U.S.-born scientists Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Riess shared the prize for discoveries showing that the universe is expanding at an accelerating pace.
_ Nobel Prize in chemistry: Israeli scientist Dan Shechtman won the award for his discovery of quasicrystals, a mosaic-like chemical structure that researchers previously thought was impossible.
_ Nobel Prize in literature: Swedish poet Tomas Transtromer won the prize for works characterized by "condensed, translucent images."
_ Nobel Peace Prize: Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Liberian activist Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkul Karman of Yemen were honored "for their nonviolent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work."
_ The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences: Americans Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims won for their research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy.