President Barack Obama delivered his 2013 State of the Union address on Tuesday.

The annual speech took place in front of a joint session of Congress and honored guests, with many watching from home.

Read the full text of Obama's speech as prepared for delivery below:

Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President, Members of Congress, fellow citizens:

Fifty-one years ago, John F. Kennedy declared to this Chamber that “the Constitution makes us not rivals for power but partners for progress…It is my task,” he said, “to report the State of the Union – to improve it is the task of us all.”

Tonight, thanks to the grit and determination of the American people, there is much progress to report. After a decade of grinding war, our brave men and women in uniform are coming home. After years of grueling recession, our businesses have created over six million new jobs. We buy more American cars than we have in five years, and less foreign oil than we have in twenty. Our housing market is healing, our stock market is rebounding, and consumers, patients, and homeowners enjoy stronger protections than ever before.

Together, we have cleared away the rubble of crisis, and can say with renewed confidence that the state of our union is stronger.

But we gather here knowing that there are millions of Americans whose hard work and dedication have not yet been rewarded. Our economy is adding jobs – but too many people still can’t find full-time employment. Corporate profits have rocketed to all-time highs – but for more than a decade, wages and incomes have barely budged.

It is our generation’s task, then, to reignite the true engine of America’s economic growth – a rising, thriving middle class.

It is our unfinished task to restore the basic bargain that built this country – the idea that if you work hard and meet your responsibilities, you can get ahead, no matter where you come from, what you look like, or who you love.

It is our unfinished task to make sure that this government works on behalf of the many, and not just the few; that it encourages free enterprise, rewards individual initiative, and opens the doors of opportunity to every child across this great nation.

The American people don’t expect government to solve every problem. They don’t expect those of us in this chamber to agree on every issue. But they do expect us to put the nation’s interests before party. They do expect us to forge reasonable compromise where we can. For they know that America moves forward only when we do so together; and that the responsibility of improving this union remains the task of us all.

Our work must begin by making some basic decisions about our budget – decisions that will have a huge impact on the strength of our recovery.

Over the last few years, both parties have worked together to reduce the deficit by more than $2.5 trillion – mostly through spending cuts, but also by raising tax rates on the wealthiest 1 percent of Americans. As a result, we are more than halfway towards the goal of $4 trillion in deficit reduction that economists say we need to stabilize our finances.

Now we need to finish the job. And the question is, how?

In 2011, Congress passed a law saying that if both parties couldn’t agree on a plan to reach our deficit goal, about a trillion dollars’ worth of budget cuts would automatically go into effect this year. These sudden, harsh, arbitrary cuts would jeopardize our military readiness. They’d devastate priorities like education, energy, and medical research. They would certainly slow our recovery, and cost us hundreds of thousands of jobs. That’s why Democrats, Republicans, business leaders, and economists have already said that these cuts, known here in Washington as “the sequester,” are a really bad idea.

Now, some in this Congress have proposed preventing only the defense cuts by making even bigger cuts to things like education and job training; Medicare and Social Security benefits.

That idea is even worse. Yes, the biggest driver of our long-term debt is the rising cost of health care for an aging population. And those of us who care deeply about programs like Medicare must embrace the need for modest reforms – otherwise, our retirement programs will crowd out the investments we need for our children, and jeopardize the promise of a secure retirement for future generations.

But we can’t ask senior citizens and working families to shoulder the entire burden of deficit reduction while asking nothing more from the wealthiest and most powerful. We won’t grow the middle class simply by shifting the cost of health care or college onto families that are already struggling, or by forcing communities to lay off more teachers, cops, and firefighters. Most Americans – Democrats, Republicans, and Independents – understand that we can’t just cut our way to prosperity. They know that broad-based economic growth requires a balanced approach to deficit reduction, with spending cuts and revenue, and with everybody doing their fair share. And that’s the approach I offer tonight.

On Medicare, I’m prepared to enact reforms that will achieve the same amount of health care savings by the beginning of the next decade as the reforms proposed by the bipartisan Simpson-Bowles commission. Already, the Affordable Care Act is helping to slow the growth of health care costs. The reforms I’m proposing go even further. We’ll reduce taxpayer subsidies to prescription drug companies and ask more from the wealthiest seniors. We’ll bring down costs by changing the way our government pays for Medicare, because our medical bills shouldn’t be based on the number of tests ordered or days spent in the hospital – they should be based on the quality of care that our seniors receive. And I am open to additional reforms from both parties, so long as they don’t violate the guarantee of a secure retirement. Our government shouldn’t make promises we cannot keep – but we must keep the promises we’ve already made.

To hit the rest of our deficit reduction target, we should do what leaders in both parties have already suggested, and save hundreds of billions of dollars by getting rid of tax loopholes and deductions for the well-off and well-connected. After all, why would we choose to make deeper cuts to education and Medicare just to protect special interest tax breaks? How is that fair? How does that promote growth?

Now is our best chance for bipartisan, comprehensive tax reform that encourages job creation and helps bring down the deficit. The American people deserve a tax code that helps small businesses spend less time filling out complicated forms, and more time expanding and hiring; a tax code that ensures billionaires with high-powered accountants can’t pay a lower rate than their hard-working secretaries; a tax code that lowers incentives to move jobs overseas, and lowers tax rates for businesses and manufacturers that create jobs right here in America. That’s what tax reform can deliver. That’s what we can do together.

I realize that tax reform and entitlement reform won’t be easy. The politics will be hard for both sides. None of us will get 100 percent of what we want. But the alternative will cost us jobs, hurt our economy, and visit hardship on millions of hardworking Americans. So let’s set party interests aside, and work to pass a budget that replaces reckless cuts with smart savings and wise investments in our future. And let’s do it without the brinksmanship that stresses consumers and scares off investors. The greatest nation on Earth cannot keep conducting its business by drifting from one manufactured crisis to the next. Let’s agree, right here, right now, to keep the people’s government open, pay our bills on time, and always uphold the full faith and credit of the United States of America. The American people have worked too hard, for too long, rebuilding from one crisis to see their elected officials cause another.

Now, most of us agree that a plan to reduce the deficit must be part of our agenda. But let’s be clear: deficit reduction alone is not an economic plan. A growing economy that creates good, middle-class jobs – that must be the North Star that guides our efforts. Every day, we should ask ourselves three questions as a nation: How do we attract more jobs to our shores? How do we equip our people with the skills needed to do those jobs? And how do we make sure that hard work leads to a decent living?

A year and a half ago, I put forward an American Jobs Act that independent economists said would create more than one million new jobs. I thank the last Congress for passing some of that agenda, and I urge this Congress to pass the rest. Tonight, I’ll lay out additional proposals that are fully paid for and fully consistent with the budget framework both parties agreed to just 18 months ago. Let me repeat – nothing I’m proposing tonight should increase our deficit by a single dime. It’s not a bigger government we need, but a smarter government that sets priorities and invests in broad-based growth.

Our first priority is making America a magnet for new jobs and manufacturing.

After shedding jobs for more than 10 years, our manufacturers have added about 500,000 jobs over the past three. Caterpillar is bringing jobs back from Japan. Ford is bringing jobs back from Mexico. After locating plants in other countries like China, Intel is opening its most advanced plant right here at home. And this year, Apple will start making Macs in America again.

There are things we can do, right now, to accelerate this trend. Last year, we created our first manufacturing innovation institute in Youngstown, Ohio. A once-shuttered warehouse is now a state-of-the art lab where new workers are mastering the 3D printing that has the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything. There’s no reason this can’t happen in other towns. So tonight, I’m announcing the launch of three more of these manufacturing hubs, where businesses will partner with the Departments of Defense and Energy to turn regions left behind by globalization into global centers of high-tech jobs. And I ask this Congress to help create a network of fifteen of these hubs and guarantee that the next revolution in manufacturing is Made in America.

If we want to make the best products, we also have to invest in the best ideas. Every dollar we invested to map the human genome returned $140 to our economy. Today, our scientists are mapping the human brain to unlock the answers to Alzheimer’s; developing drugs to regenerate damaged organs; devising new material to make batteries ten times more powerful. Now is not the time to gut these job-creating investments in science and innovation. Now is the time to reach a level of research and development not seen since the height of the Space Race. And today, no area holds more promise than our investments in American energy.

After years of talking about it, we are finally poised to control our own energy future. We produce more oil at home than we have in 15 years. We have doubled the distance our cars will go on a gallon of gas, and the amount of renewable energy we generate from sources like wind and solar – with tens of thousands of good, American jobs to show for it. We produce more natural gas than ever before – and nearly everyone’s energy bill is lower because of it. And over the last four years, our emissions of the dangerous carbon pollution that threatens our planet have actually fallen.

But for the sake of our children and our future, we must do more to combat climate change. Yes, it’s true that no single event makes a trend. But the fact is, the 12 hottest years on record have all come in the last 15. Heat waves, droughts, wildfires, and floods – all are now more frequent and intense. We can choose to believe that Superstorm Sandy, and the most severe drought in decades, and the worst wildfires some states have ever seen were all just a freak coincidence. Or we can choose to believe in the overwhelming judgment of science – and act before it’s too late.

The good news is, we can make meaningful progress on this issue while driving strong economic growth. I urge this Congress to pursue a bipartisan, market-based solution to climate change, like the one John McCain and Joe Lieberman worked on together a few years ago. But if Congress won’t act soon to protect future generations, I will. I will direct my Cabinet to come up with executive actions we can take, now and in the future, to reduce pollution, prepare our communities for the consequences of climate change, and speed the transition to more sustainable sources of energy.

Four years ago, other countries dominated the clean energy market and the jobs that came with it. We’ve begun to change that. Last year, wind energy added nearly half of all new power capacity in America. So let’s generate even more. Solar energy gets cheaper by the year – so let’s drive costs down even further. As long as countries like China keep going all-in on clean energy, so must we.

In the meantime, the natural gas boom has led to cleaner power and greater energy independence. That’s why my Administration will keep cutting red tape and speeding up new oil and gas permits. But I also want to work with this Congress to encourage the research and technology that helps natural gas burn even cleaner and protects our air and water.

Indeed, much of our new-found energy is drawn from lands and waters that we, the public, own together. So tonight, I propose we use some of our oil and gas revenues to fund an Energy Security Trust that will drive new research and technology to shift our cars and trucks off oil for good. If a non-partisan coalition of CEOs and retired generals and admirals can get behind this idea, then so can we. Let’s take their advice and free our families and businesses from the painful spikes in gas prices we’ve put up with for far too long. I’m also issuing a new goal for America: let’s cut in half the energy wasted by our homes and businesses over the next twenty years. The states with the best ideas to create jobs and lower energy bills by constructing more efficient buildings will receive federal support to help make it happen.

America’s energy sector is just one part of an aging infrastructure badly in need of repair. Ask any CEO where they’d rather locate and hire: a country with deteriorating roads and bridges, or one with high-speed rail and internet; high-tech schools and self-healing power grids. The CEO of Siemens America – a company that brought hundreds of new jobs to North Carolina – has said that if we upgrade our infrastructure, they’ll bring even more jobs. And I know that you want these job-creating projects in your districts. I’ve seen you all at the ribbon-cuttings.

Tonight, I propose a “Fix-It-First” program to put people to work as soon as possible on our most urgent repairs, like the nearly 70,000 structurally deficient bridges across the country. And to make sure taxpayers don’t shoulder the whole burden, I’m also proposing a Partnership to Rebuild America that attracts private capital to upgrade what our businesses need most: modern ports to move our goods; modern pipelines to withstand a storm; modern schools worthy of our children. Let’s prove that there is no better place to do business than the United States of America. And let’s start right away.

Part of our rebuilding effort must also involve our housing sector. Today, our housing market is finally healing from the collapse of 2007. Home prices are rising at the fastest pace in six years, home purchases are up nearly 50 percent, and construction is expanding again.

But even with mortgage rates near a 50-year low, too many families with solid credit who want to buy a home are being rejected. Too many families who have never missed a payment and want to refinance are being told no. That’s holding our entire economy back, and we need to fix it. Right now, there’s a bill in this Congress that would give every responsible homeowner in America the chance to save $3,000 a year by refinancing at today’s rates. Democrats and Republicans have supported it before. What are we waiting for? Take a vote, and send me that bill. Right now, overlapping regulations keep responsible young families from buying their first home. What’s holding us back? Let’s streamline the process, and help our economy grow.

These initiatives in manufacturing, energy, infrastructure, and housing will help entrepreneurs and small business owners expand and create new jobs. But none of it will matter unless we also equip our citizens with the skills and training to fill those jobs. And that has to start at the earliest possible age.

Study after study shows that the sooner a child begins learning, the better he or she does down the road. But today, fewer than 3 in 10 four year-olds are enrolled in a high-quality preschool program. Most middle-class parents can’t afford a few hundred bucks a week for private preschool. And for poor kids who need help the most, this lack of access to preschool education can shadow them for the rest of their lives.

Tonight, I propose working with states to make high-quality preschool available to every child in America. Every dollar we invest in high-quality early education can save more than seven dollars later on – by boosting graduation rates, reducing teen pregnancy, even reducing violent crime. In states that make it a priority to educate our youngest children, like Georgia or Oklahoma, studies show students grow up more likely to read and do math at grade level, graduate high school, hold a job, and form more stable families of their own. So let’s do what works, and make sure none of our children start the race of life already behind. Let’s give our kids that chance.

Let’s also make sure that a high school diploma puts our kids on a path to a good job. Right now, countries like Germany focus on graduating their high school students with the equivalent of a technical degree from one of our community colleges, so that they’re ready for a job. At schools like P-Tech in Brooklyn, a collaboration between New York Public Schools, the City University of New York, and IBM, students will graduate with a high school diploma and an associate degree in computers or engineering.

We need to give every American student opportunities like this. Four years ago, we started Race to the Top – a competition that convinced almost every state to develop smarter curricula and higher standards, for about 1 percent of what we spend on education each year. Tonight, I’m announcing a new challenge to redesign America’s high schools so they better equip graduates for the demands of a high-tech economy. We’ll reward schools that develop new partnerships with colleges and employers, and create classes that focus on science, technology, engineering, and math – the skills today’s employers are looking for to fill jobs right now and in the future.

Now, even with better high schools, most young people will need some higher education. It’s a simple fact: the more education you have, the more likely you are to have a job and work your way into the middle class. But today, skyrocketing costs price way too many young people out of a higher education, or saddle them with unsustainable debt.

Through tax credits, grants, and better loans, we have made college more affordable for millions of students and families over the last few years. But taxpayers cannot continue to subsidize the soaring cost of higher education. Colleges must do their part to keep costs down, and it’s our job to make sure they do. Tonight, I ask Congress to change the Higher Education Act, so that affordability and value are included in determining which colleges receive certain types of federal aid. And tomorrow, my Administration will release a new “College Scorecard” that parents and students can use to compare schools based on a simple criteria: where you can get the most bang for your educational buck.

To grow our middle class, our citizens must have access to the education and training that today’s jobs require. But we also have to make sure that America remains a place where everyone who’s willing to work hard has the chance to get ahead.

Our economy is stronger when we harness the talents and ingenuity of striving, hopeful immigrants. And right now, leaders from the business, labor, law enforcement, and faith communities all agree that the time has come to pass comprehensive immigration reform.

Real reform means strong border security, and we can build on the progress my Administration has already made – putting more boots on the southern border than at any time in our history, and reducing illegal crossings to their lowest levels in 40 years.

Real reform means establishing a responsible pathway to earned citizenship – a path that includes passing a background check, paying taxes and a meaningful penalty, learning English, and going to the back of the line behind the folks trying to come here legally.

And real reform means fixing the legal immigration system to cut waiting periods, reduce bureaucracy, and attract the highly-skilled entrepreneurs and engineers that will help create jobs and grow our economy.

In other words, we know what needs to be done. As we speak, bipartisan groups in both chambers are working diligently to draft a bill, and I applaud their efforts. Now let’s get this done. Send me a comprehensive immigration reform bill in the next few months, and I will sign it right away.

But we can’t stop there. We know our economy is stronger when our wives, mothers, and daughters can live their lives free from discrimination in the workplace, and free from the fear of domestic violence. Today, the Senate passed the Violence Against Women Act that Joe Biden originally wrote almost 20 years ago. I urge the House to do the same. And I ask this Congress to declare that women should earn a living equal to their efforts, and finally pass the Paycheck Fairness Act this year.

We know our economy is stronger when we reward an honest day’s work with honest wages. But today, a full-time worker making the minimum wage earns $14,500 a year. Even with the tax relief we’ve put in place, a family with two kids that earns the minimum wage still lives below the poverty line. That’s wrong. That’s why, since the last time this Congress raised the minimum wage, nineteen states have chosen to bump theirs even higher.

Tonight, let’s declare that in the wealthiest nation on Earth, no one who works full-time should have to live in poverty, and raise the federal minimum wage to $9.00 an hour. This single step would raise the incomes of millions of working families. It could mean the difference between groceries or the food bank; rent or eviction; scraping by or finally getting ahead. For businesses across the country, it would mean customers with more money in their pockets. In fact, working folks shouldn’t have to wait year after year for the minimum wage to go up while CEO pay has never been higher. So here’s an idea that Governor Romney and I actually agreed on last year: let’s tie the minimum wage to the cost of living, so that it finally becomes a wage you can live on.

Tonight, let’s also recognize that there are communities in this country where no matter how hard you work, it’s virtually impossible to get ahead. Factory towns decimated from years of plants packing up. Inescapable pockets of poverty, urban and rural, where young adults are still fighting for their first job. America is not a place where chance of birth or circumstance should decide our destiny. And that is why we need to build new ladders of opportunity into the middle class for all who are willing to climb them.

Let’s offer incentives to companies that hire Americans who’ve got what it takes to fill that job opening, but have been out of work so long that no one will give them a chance. Let’s put people back to work rebuilding vacant homes in run-down neighborhoods. And this year, my Administration will begin to partner with 20 of the hardest-hit towns in America to get these communities back on their feet. We’ll work with local leaders to target resources at public safety, education, and housing. We’ll give new tax credits to businesses that hire and invest. And we’ll work to strengthen families by removing the financial deterrents to marriage for low-income couples, and doing more to encourage fatherhood – because what makes you a man isn’t the ability to conceive a child; it’s having the courage to raise one.

Stronger families. Stronger communities. A stronger America. It is this kind of prosperity – broad, shared, and built on a thriving middle class – that has always been the source of our progress at home. It is also the foundation of our power and influence throughout the world.

Tonight, we stand united in saluting the troops and civilians who sacrifice every day to protect us. Because of them, we can say with confidence that America will complete its mission in Afghanistan, and achieve our objective of defeating the core of al Qaeda. Already, we have brought home 33,000 of our brave servicemen and women. This spring, our forces will move into a support role, while Afghan security forces take the lead. Tonight, I can announce that over the next year, another 34,000 American troops will come home from Afghanistan. This drawdown will continue. And by the end of next year, our war in Afghanistan will be over.

Beyond 2014, America’s commitment to a unified and sovereign Afghanistan will endure, but the nature of our commitment will change. We are negotiating an agreement with the Afghan government that focuses on two missions: training and equipping Afghan forces so that the country does not again slip into chaos, and counter-terrorism efforts that allow us to pursue the remnants of al Qaeda and their affiliates.

Today, the organization that attacked us on 9/11 is a shadow of its former self. Different al Qaeda affiliates and extremist groups have emerged – from the Arabian Peninsula to Africa. The threat these groups pose is evolving. But to meet this threat, we don’t need to send tens of thousands of our sons and daughters abroad, or occupy other nations. Instead, we will need to help countries like Yemen, Libya, and Somalia provide for their own security, and help allies who take the fight to terrorists, as we have in Mali. And, where necessary, through a range of capabilities, we will continue to take direct action against those terrorists who pose the gravest threat to Americans.

As we do, we must enlist our values in the fight. That is why my Administration has worked tirelessly to forge a durable legal and policy framework to guide our counterterrorism operations. Throughout, we have kept Congress fully informed of our efforts. I recognize that in our democracy, no one should just take my word that we’re doing things the right way. So, in the months ahead, I will continue to engage with Congress to ensure not only that our targeting, detention, and prosecution of terrorists remains consistent with our laws and system of checks and balances, but that our efforts are even more transparent to the American people and to the world.

Of course, our challenges don’t end with al Qaeda. America will continue to lead the effort to prevent the spread of the world’s most dangerous weapons. The regime in North Korea must know that they will only achieve security and prosperity by meeting their international obligations. Provocations of the sort we saw last night will only isolate them further, as we stand by our allies, strengthen our own missile defense, and lead the world in taking firm action in response to these threats.

Likewise, the leaders of Iran must recognize that now is the time for a diplomatic solution, because a coalition stands united in demanding that they meet their obligations, and we will do what is necessary to prevent them from getting a nuclear weapon. At the same time, we will engage Russia to seek further reductions in our nuclear arsenals, and continue leading the global effort to secure nuclear materials that could fall into the wrong hands – because our ability to influence others depends on our willingness to lead.

America must also face the rapidly growing threat from cyber-attacks. We know hackers steal people’s identities and infiltrate private e-mail. We know foreign countries and companies swipe our corporate secrets. Now our enemies are also seeking the ability to sabotage our power grid, our financial institutions, and our air traffic control systems. We cannot look back years from now and wonder why we did nothing in the face of real threats to our security and our economy.

That’s why, earlier today, I signed a new executive order that will strengthen our cyber defenses by increasing information sharing, and developing standards to protect our national security, our jobs, and our privacy. Now, Congress must act as well, by passing legislation to give our government a greater capacity to secure our networks and deter attacks.

Even as we protect our people, we should remember that today’s world presents not only dangers, but opportunities. To boost American exports, support American jobs, and level the playing field in the growing markets of Asia, we intend to complete negotiations on a Trans-Pacific Partnership. And tonight, I am announcing that we will launch talks on a comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership with the European Union – because trade that is free and fair across the Atlantic supports millions of good-paying American jobs.

We also know that progress in the most impoverished parts of our world enriches us all. In many places, people live on little more than a dollar a day. So the United States will join with our allies to eradicate such extreme poverty in the next two decades: by connecting more people to the global economy and empowering women; by giving our young and brightest minds new opportunities to serve and helping communities to feed, power, and educate themselves; by saving the world’s children from preventable deaths; and by realizing the promise of an AIDS-free generation.

Above all, America must remain a beacon to all who seek freedom during this period of historic change. I saw the power of hope last year in Rangoon – when Aung San Suu Kyi welcomed an American President into the home where she had been imprisoned for years; when thousands of Burmese lined the streets, waving American flags, including a man who said, “There is justice and law in the United States. I want our country to be like that.”

In defense of freedom, we will remain the anchor of strong alliances from the Americas to Africa; from Europe to Asia. In the Middle East, we will stand with citizens as they demand their universal rights, and support stable transitions to democracy. The process will be messy, and we cannot presume to dictate the course of change in countries like Egypt; but we can – and will – insist on respect for the fundamental rights of all people. We will keep the pressure on a Syrian regime that has murdered its own people, and support opposition leaders that respect the rights of every Syrian. And we will stand steadfast with Israel in pursuit of security and a lasting peace. These are the messages I will deliver when I travel to the Middle East next month.

All this work depends on the courage and sacrifice of those who serve in dangerous places at great personal risk – our diplomats, our intelligence officers, and the men and women of the United States Armed Forces. As long as I’m Commander-in-Chief, we will do whatever we must to protect those who serve their country abroad, and we will maintain the best military in the world. We will invest in new capabilities, even as we reduce waste and wartime spending. We will ensure equal treatment for all service members, and equal benefits for their families – gay and straight. We will draw upon the courage and skills of our sisters and daughters, because women have proven under fire that they are ready for combat. We will keep faith with our veterans – investing in world-class care, including mental health care, for our wounded warriors; supporting our military families; and giving our veterans the benefits, education, and job opportunities they have earned. And I want to thank my wife Michelle and Dr. Jill Biden for their continued dedication to serving our military families as well as they serve us.

But defending our freedom is not the job of our military alone. We must all do our part to make sure our God-given rights are protected here at home. That includes our most fundamental right as citizens: the right to vote. When any Americans – no matter where they live or what their party – are denied that right simply because they can’t wait for five, six, seven hours just to cast their ballot, we are betraying our ideals. That’s why, tonight, I’m announcing a non-partisan commission to improve the voting experience in America. And I’m asking two long-time experts in the field, who’ve recently served as the top attorneys for my campaign and for Governor Romney’s campaign, to lead it. We can fix this, and we will. The American people demand it. And so does our democracy.

Of course, what I’ve said tonight matters little if we don’t come together to protect our most precious resource – our children.

It has been two months since Newtown. I know this is not the first time this country has debated how to reduce gun violence. But this time is different. Overwhelming majorities of Americans – Americans who believe in the 2nd Amendment – have come together around commonsense reform – like background checks that will make it harder for criminals to get their hands on a gun. Senators of both parties are working together on tough new laws to prevent anyone from buying guns for resale to criminals. Police chiefs are asking our help to get weapons of war and massive ammunition magazines off our streets, because they are tired of being outgunned.

Each of these proposals deserves a vote in Congress. If you want to vote no, that’s your choice. But these proposals deserve a vote. Because in the two months since Newtown, more than a thousand birthdays, graduations, and anniversaries have been stolen from our lives by a bullet from a gun.

One of those we lost was a young girl named Hadiya Pendleton. She was 15 years old. She loved Fig Newtons and lip gloss. She was a majorette. She was so good to her friends, they all thought they were her best friend. Just three weeks ago, she was here, in Washington, with her classmates, performing for her country at my inauguration. And a week later, she was shot and killed in a Chicago park after school, just a mile away from my house.

Hadiya’s parents, Nate and Cleo, are in this chamber tonight, along with more than two dozen Americans whose lives have been torn apart by gun violence. They deserve a vote.

Gabby Giffords deserves a vote.

The families of Newtown deserve a vote.

The families of Aurora deserve a vote.

The families of Oak Creek, and Tucson, and Blacksburg, and the countless other communities ripped open by gun violence – they deserve a simple vote.

Our actions will not prevent every senseless act of violence in this country. Indeed, no laws, no initiatives, no administrative acts will perfectly solve all the challenges I’ve outlined tonight. But we were never sent here to be perfect. We were sent here to make what difference we can, to secure this nation, expand opportunity, and uphold our ideals through the hard, often frustrating, but absolutely necessary work of self-government.

We were sent here to look out for our fellow Americans the same way they look out for one another, every single day, usually without fanfare, all across this country. We should follow their example.

We should follow the example of a New York City nurse named Menchu Sanchez. When Hurricane Sandy plunged her hospital into darkness, her thoughts were not with how her own home was faring – they were with the twenty precious newborns in her care and the rescue plan she devised that kept them all safe.

We should follow the example of a North Miami woman named Desiline Victor. When she arrived at her polling place, she was told the wait to vote might be six hours. And as time ticked by, her concern was not with her tired body or aching feet, but whether folks like her would get to have their say. Hour after hour, a throng of people stayed in line in support of her. Because Desiline is 102 years old. And they erupted in cheers when she finally put on a sticker that read “I Voted.”

We should follow the example of a police officer named Brian Murphy. When a gunman opened fire on a Sikh temple in Wisconsin, and Brian was the first to arrive, he did not consider his own safety. He fought back until help arrived, and ordered his fellow officers to protect the safety of the Americans worshiping inside – even as he lay bleeding from twelve bullet wounds.

When asked how he did that, Brian said, “That’s just the way we’re made.”


That’s just the way we’re made.

We may do different jobs, and wear different uniforms, and hold different views than the person beside us. But as Americans, we all share the same proud title:

We are citizens. It’s a word that doesn’t just describe our nationality or legal status. It describes the way we’re made. It describes what we believe. It captures the enduring idea that this country only works when we accept certain obligations to one another and to future generations; that our rights are wrapped up in the rights of others; and that well into our third century as a nation, it remains the task of us all, as citizens of these United States, to be the authors of the next great chapter in our American story.

Thank you, God bless you, and God bless the United States of America.

Below, live updates from State of the Union:

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Rep. Paul Ryan (R-Wis.) had rare words of praise on Tuesday for President Barack Obama's message on immigration.

"I thought on comprehensive immigration reform, I thought his words were measured," Ryan said in an interview with CNN after the State of the Union address. "I think the tone and the words he took were productive on that front."

Obama urged Congress to act quickly -- "in the next few months" -- and praised the work of bipartisan groups in the House and Senate. Ryan said he appreciated that nod to Congress, adding that he thinks immigration is "an area where we have a good chance of getting something done."

"I think, you know, when you have -- when you are in the legislative arena and we're trying to get a comprehensive bipartisan agreement here, the words he uses matters," Ryan told CNN. "And he used what I thought was a measured tone, which gives me a sense that he is trying to get something done."

-- Elise Foley

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WASHINGTON -- For many of the 300 immigrant day laborers, cooks and manual laborers watching the State of the Union address at a Hilton Hotel in Washington on Tuesday, President Barack Obama's remarks on immigration were underwhelming.

When Obama called for swift action on immigration reform, the crowd in the Hilton conference room roared with cheers. But as the president laid out his policy ideas, including enhanced border security, taxes and penalties, the immigrant workers quickly turned to boos, hisses and indignation.

"I was surprised that he dedicated so little time of his speech to immigration," said Guillermina Castellanos, 52, a community organizer from San Francisco. "We know it's our labor that makes this country function."

The group was gathered for grassroots organizing trainings hosted by the United Workers Congress and the National Guestworker Alliance, and later this week will attend a Senate Judiciary Committee hearing and a press conference with Rep. Luis Gutierrez (D-Ill.).

The organizers and workers are staunch supporters of comprehensive immigration reform that includes a pathway to citizenship, and one of their top priorities is to urge Obama to halt deportations -- which currently stand at record levels -- until immigration reform discussions are complete. About one-fifth of the crowd was undocumented, National Day Laborer Organizing Network spokesman B. Loewe estimated.

For immigrants, Obama's statements were particularly important. Raul de la Torre, 46, is a worker from Mexico who along with 89 of his colleagues was fired by his employer for allegedly being undocumented after the group tried to organize to bargain for fair wages. He is involved with Voces de la Frontera, an immigrant rights group, and was with Jennifer Martinez, a 33-year-old U.S. citizen also involved with Voces. She has four small children she is raising alone after her undocumented husband was deported to Mexico last year.

With Martinez acting as a translator, de la Torre said he "hoped and prayed with all his heart that Obama has a conscience."

-- Preston Maddock

CORRECTION: This post has been corrected to clarify details of Raul de la Torre's case.

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President Barack Obama argued Tuesday night that a growing economy with more middle-class jobs "must be the North Star that guides our efforts."

But some outside observers and economists said the president's State of the Union address reflected a less ambitious approach to job creation than in the past -- one that acknowledged the realities of dealing with a Congress focused mostly on deficit-reduction.

"I'm sure there are a lot of good things in there, but it's just going to be nickel-and-dime stuff," said Dean Baker, an economist with the Center for Economic and Policy Research. "He's starting his term, in my view, by asking for very, very little."

Obama's new proposals included a "Fix It First" program that calls for $50 billion to hire people to fix decaying infrastructure such as bridges, and new upgrades to roads and railroads financed by reduced war spending. He also proposed a program to put people to work revamping vacant homes in communities ravaged by foreclosures, estimated to cost $15 billion.

The president made a passing reference to a $447 billion jobs bill he proposed in 2011, but he stressed that "nothing I’m proposing tonight should increase our deficit by a single dime."

The language was a marked contrast from last year's speech, where Obama referenced the Hoover Dam, the Golden Gate Bridge and the interstate highway system as examples of past administrations investing in "great projects that benefited everybody."

"You need to fund these projects," he said in the 2012 address. "Take the money we're no longer spending at war, use half of it to pay down our debt, and use the rest to do some nation-building right here at home."

"Rhetorically, there were some bold visions in this speech, but I didn't see the level of specificity about the new projects this time as I have in the past," said Scott Paul, president of the Alliance for American Manufacturing. "Part of that may be an aspect of realism, but I'm of the school that if you don't ask for it, you're not going to get it."

Jared Bernstein, a senior fellow at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, said some of the more modest initiatives on job creation in this speech reflect the country moving beyond the crisis mode of 2009 and 2010.

"As opposed to his agenda in his first years, where he was really putting out a huge fire, at this point he's talking about rebuilding the house," said Bernstein, a former Obama administration economist. "You're going to hear much less about large deficit spending on a big stimulus, and more about investments in kids, in infrastructure, in our manufacturing base."

-- Chris Kirkham

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I was playing the role of hard-boiled -- not to say cynical -- reporter on the Hill when I got into a conversation with Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz after the president's State of the Union address Tuesday night.

"So," I asked, "do YOU have your own personal victim of gun-violence with you tonight?"

The Florida Democrat, an important party leader, shot me a glance that was equal parts pity, surprise and annoyance. "Yes I do," she said, and turned to introduce me to 17-year-old from Miami named Megan Hobson. The young woman explained that she had been injured in a drive-by shooting last year.

"We needed to have people here such as Megan to underscore the point we want to make about gun violence," Wasserman Schultz said.

President Barack Obama laid out a detailed progressive agenda, a recitation that some pundits panned, but that early polls showed the public liked. Still, the emotional highlight -- and potentially most politically astute maneuver -- was when Obama and his fellow Democrats discussed the lives and losses of gun-violence victims.

In an effort organized by five Democrats from New York and New England -- the region of Newtown -- more than 30 members brought to the Capitol families that had experienced gun-related tragedies. It was powerful theater, especially when Obama himself paid homage to the parents of a victim from Chicago.

Using the call-and-response cadence of a church service, the president demanded that the Congress allow up-or-down votes on several gun measures. The idea was to put Republicans and wavering Democrats from Red States on the spot.

And it felt in the House Chamber Tuesday night that he had done so.

"The president backed them into a corner and they sat there like they were trying out for stone faces on Mount Rushmore," said Rep. Steve Cohen, a Democrat from Tennessee. "I loved that. And maybe we'll get those voters."

Maybe the Democrats and Obama will. Whether they will win them is another matter. If they do, the beginning of the story of that victory will be this night in the U.S. House -- and with people such as Megan Hobson.

-- Howard Fineman

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The Huffington Post's Ryan Grim reports:

President Barack Obama Tuesday night pledged that if Congress refuses to take action to stem climate change, his administration would act unilaterally.

"I urge this Congress to pursue a bipartisan, market-based solution to climate change, like the one John McCain and Joe Lieberman worked on together a few years ago," Obama said, as McCain offered a tight smile from a back row. "But if Congress won’t act soon to protect future generations, I will. I will direct my cabinet to come up with executive actions we can take, now and in the future, to reduce pollution, prepare our communities for the consequences of climate change, and speed the transition to more sustainable sources of energy."

There's about zero chance that the GOP-led House will pass climate change legislation this session, given that many of its members do not acknowledge that human activity has anything to do with it, if it's happening at all.

Click here to read more.

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Sen. Joe Manchin, a Democrat from West Virginia, said he liked President Barack Obama's speech, but was miffed the energy portion left out his state's key resource -- coal.

Obama and his administration have talked about coal in the past, but Manchin noticed the president didn't bring it up when he was addressing energy efficiency and climate change.

"I was disappointed on energy," Manchin told reporters. "Not to say a word about coal -- and coal produces about 35 percent of the the nation's energy. When you look at it, you've got to talk about climate, and if you're talking about climate, the United States of America consumes close to one-eighth of the the coal that's burned in the world -- you should be finding the technology that helps use it cleanly, and uses it much better and more efficiently. So that was disappointing."

Many analysts have said there is no such thing as clean coal, although Obama and Vice President Joe Biden have talked up the idea in the past.

-- Michael McAuliff

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HuffPost's Lynne Peeples reports:

President Barack Obama's State of the Union remarks fell in line with what many energy experts, industry representatives and environmental advocates predicted to me earlier today -- lots of rhetoric yet little detail on how to tackle climate change and propel green energy.

Read more here.

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The payroll tax increase that went into effect at the beginning of the year stands to offset significantly the president's proposal to raise the federal minimum wage to $9 an hour.

In his State of the Union address, Barack Obama called on lawmakers to increase the federal minimum wage from $7.25. For an employee working a 40-hour work week, the bump would translate to a 24 percent raise to $18,720 a year.

However, because of the payroll tax hike that went into effect on Jan. 1, 10 percent of that raise, or $374, would be lost, according to a calculator provided by the Wall Street Journal.

Read more here.

-- Caroline Fairchild

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HuffPost's Joy Resmovits reports:

During Tuesday night's State of the Union address, President Barack Obama proposed several major education initiatives, including a big push to expand pre-kindergarten and a potential revamp of the federal aid system for college students.

"Tonight, I propose working with states to make high-quality preschool available to every child in America," Obama said. "Every dollar we invest in high-quality early education can save more than seven dollars later on.”

Instead of focusing on the bulk of American public school students, the president's proposals zeroed in on the margins, targeting the oldest and youngest members of the country's education system.

Read more here.

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President Barack Obama during his State of the Union address called for reforms to the nation's immigration system that would help highly-skilled immigrants remain in the country.

"Real reform means fixing the legal immigration system to cut waiting periods, reduce bureaucracy and attract the highly-skilled entrepreneurs and engineers that will help create jobs and grow our economy," Obama said.

The president said bipartisan groups in both chambers of Congress were working to draft an immigration reform bill. "Send me a comprehensive immigration reform bill in the next few months, and I will sign it right away," he said.

Advocates said a massive backlog of visas is preventing immigrants with advanced degrees in engineering from securing visas to remain in the country.

Read the entire piece here.

-- Gerry Smith

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In the Republican party's State of the Union response, Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Fla.) contradicted the 2012 GOP party platform on federal student loans.

"I believe in federal financial aid. I couldn't have gone to college without it," Rubio said Tuesday evening.

Rubio owed nearly $150,000 in student loan debt to lender Sallie Mae for his time in college in the 1990s at the University of Florida and University of Miami. According to Yahoo! News, Rubio finished paying off the debt last year with book sales.

Rubio's statement runs counter to the 2012 Republican party platform, which called for an end to federal student aid and a return to subsidized student loans through private banks.

"The federal government should not be in the business of originating student loans; however, it should serve as an insurance guarantor for the private sector as they offer loans to students," the GOP platform reads. "Private sector participation in student financing should be welcomed."

Rubio did call for changes in federal student loan rules.

"Today, many graduates face massive student debt," Rubio said. "We must give students more information on the costs and benefits of the student loans they're taking out."

There are two bills proposed by Senate Democrats to address this concern.

The Know Before You Owe Act, proposed by Sen. Dick Durbin (D-Ill.), would require schools to counsel students before they take out a private loan and inform them if they have any untapped federal loan eligibility. Durbin's bill didn't attract any Republican support in the previous session of Congress. Sen. Al Franken (D-Minn.) proposed the Understanding the True Cost of College Act, which would require greater disclosure by higher education institutions and lenders. Franken's bill got bipartisan support, but never made it to a vote.

-- Tyler Kingkade

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With dozens of victims of gun violence in attendance at his State of the Union address Tuesday night, President Obama invoked the horrors visited on Newtown and Aurora in what many are calling the most rousing part of his speech.

Obama insisted that the people who live in those communities each "deserve a vote" on a variety of gun-control proposals aimed at reducing gun violence, including improved background checks and bans on "massive ammunition magazines" and "weapons of war."

"Okay, I agree," said Richard Feldman, a prominent supporter of gun rights and the head of the Independent Firearm Owners Association. "Newtown deserves a vote. Columbine deserves a vote. The question is not whether they deserve a vote, the question is what they're voting on."

In the '90s, Feldman was the head of the American Shooting Sports Council, one of the major trade associations for the gun industry at the time. He is now hoping to regain his position as a leader in the debate over guns in his new capacity as the founder of the Independent Firearm Owners Association, a group that has staked its success on the idea that politicians on both sides of the aisle can find common-sense solutions to gun violence.

One of those solutions, Feldman says, would be to allocate more funding to programs for people with mental illnesses. "But are we willing to put our money where our mouth is?" he asked.

Many of the same politicians who oppose gun control also oppose greater government spending, but Feldman dismissed that apparent conflict as a generalization. "If they do, they're wrong. If they do, they have to stop."

-- Saki Knafo

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The president on Tuesday announced a "Partnership to Rebuild America" that would create jobs through private investment in infrastructure, "to make sure taxpayers don't shoulder the whole burden."

According to an administration document released before the speech, the plan would encourage "private sector investment that will create jobs upgrading critical business infrastructure" such as oil and gas pipelines, ports and the power grid.

Another job-creation proposal that won't involve Congress involves public-private research partnerships to encourage high-tech manufacturing.

Read more here.

-- Chris Kirkham

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President Obama used the State of the Union address to renew a call for Congress to pass legislation that would permit some "responsible" homeowners a chance to refinance at current low rates, savings that could add up to $3,000 a year per family, he said.

"Right now, there’s a bill in this Congress that would give every responsible homeowner in America the chance to save $3,000 a year by refinancing at today’s rates," Obama said. "Democrats and Republicans have supported it before. What are we waiting for? Take a vote, and send me that bill."

An additional 8 million borrowers would qualify for the federal government's Home Affordable Refinance Program, or HARP, under the proposed legislation. Most significantly, the bill would allow underwater homeowners, those who owe more than their home is worth, to participate.

Obama made a similar plea in August following a New York Times article critical of his handling of housing policy.

Obama also acknowledged the difficulty that many would-be borrowers face in shopping for a home loan. "Even with mortgage rates near a 50-year low, too many families with solid credit who want to buy a home are being rejected," he said.

In a policy paper released by the White House Tuesday night, Obama also proposed a $15 billion program to help communities hardest hit by the foreclosure crisis rebuild, while creating new construction jobs. This "Project Rebuild" would rehabilitate or demolish more than 100,000 damaged or vacant properties, the administration said.

-- Ben Hallman

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Shortly after concluding his State of the Union address, President Obama dialed into a conference call with members of his new advocacy organization, Organizing for Action.

"Don't let the conversations you had tonight become empty words," he urged participants on the call.

The plea was part of a larger effort by Obama to follow up his legislative agenda with grassroots action. It's something that his administration admits it failed to do during his first term in office. And it's one of the few methods that the White House thinks it can use to overcome steadfast Republican opposition.

"Tweet your support of my plan to create jobs and strengthen the middle class," Obama said, offering up the hashtag #jobsnow.

"I hope what I said tonight resonated with you. But remember, me saying it doesn't mean anything. To get it passed, to get it signed, to get it implemented, to get it done, that is going to require a big push from you guys."

-- Sam Stein

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One of the more distracting dynamics tonight was the consistent refusal of House Speaker John Boehner to stand and applaud when Vice President Joe Biden rose next to him. Here Boehner is sitting, as Biden stands to applaud the eventual end of the Afghanistan war:



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@ howardfineman : Groans at tv monitors in statuary hall when rubio reached for the water. Of such small moments are epochs made?

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@ howardfineman : Gop also stone-faced on voting study O proposed. And equal pay for women

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Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Fla.) gave only a brief mention to immigration policy during his GOP rebuttal to the State of the Union, focusing more on the economy than the more contentious issue that has put him at odds with many of his Republican colleagues.

"We can also help our economy grow if we have a legal immigration system that allows us to attract and assimilate the world’s best and brightest," Rubio said. "We need a responsible, permanent solution to the problem of those who are here illegally. But first, we must follow through on the broken promises of the past to secure our borders and enforce our laws."

Rubio is a member of the "gang of eight," a bipartisan group of senators working on a comprehensive immigration bill. With the rest of the group, including GOP Sens. John McCain (R-Ariz.), Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.) and Jeff Flake (R-Ariz.), Rubio called for a pathway to citizenship for undocumented immigrants along with stricter border and interior enforcement and a major overhaul of the legal immigration system.

A number of Republicans disagree with the "gang of eight" on the issue of citizenship for undocumented immigrants, and Rubio has attempted to walk the thin line between agreeing with them about the risks and trying to argue for the plan he put forward.

To do so, he has emphasized, as he did on Tuesday, the need to secure borders and enforce the laws "before" any other reform, which the "gang of eight" plan does, at least in a sense. The plan would allow undocumented immigrants who met certain requirements to gain provisional legal status right away, but then would require border provisions be met before any of them could be given green cards.

-- Elise Foley

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HuffPost's Ryan J. Reilly reports:

Desiline Victor, a 102-year-old Miami woman who waited for hours to vote in the last election, got a standing ovation from the nation's top leaders during President Barack Obama's State of the Union address Tuesday night. Victor attended the State of the Union as a guest of first lady Michelle Obama.

"When she arrived at her polling place, she was told the wait to vote might be six hours," the president said. "And as time ticked by, her concern was not with her tired body or aching feet, but whether folks like her would get to have their say. Hour after hour, a throng of people stayed in line in support of her. Because Desiline is 102 years old. And they erupted in cheers when she finally put on a sticker that read 'I Voted.'"

Click here to read more.

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@ SenJohnMcCain : Disappointed but not surprised by the President's failure to seriously address the issue of 60,000 dead in #Syria. #SOTU

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@ howardfineman : Call for increase in minimum wage probably got the coldest response from GOP -- a classic if not THE classic dem-repub dividing point. H

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President Barack Obama's State of the Union address Tuesday night drew immediate reactions from politicians from both parties, with some taking to Twitter during the speech to respond. Here's what some had to say during and immediately after the speech.

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@ gov : Most-tweeted #SOTU moment: Middle class opportunity and minimum wage at 9:52p ET = ~24,000 Tweets per minute.

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@ howardfineman : Might be able to get a bare majority for -- but most won't get enacted.

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@ howardfineman : That was a detailed, programmatic speech -- some of which he has and can do on his own; some things he mighj

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President Obama essentially plagiarized himself in last year's State of the Union, with remarks on immigration that were strikingly similar to those he made during his address in 2011. And both of those segments focused largely on Dreamers, the young undocumented immigrants who came to the United States as children.

This year, though, he no longer had to make the case for why immigration reform is needed -- now the argument is over what such reforms should include. Where in previous speeches he implored Congress to take up even a single measure, this year he's calling for an entire package, and has the momentum to do so.

For comparison, here are Obama's remarks on immigration in the past three State of the Union speeches, with emphasis added for what the president seemed to indicate could get done.

2011:

Today, there are hundreds of thousands of students excelling in our schools who are not American citizens. Some are the children of undocumented workers, who had nothing to do with the actions of their parents. They grew up as Americans and pledge allegiance to our flag, and yet they live every day with the threat of deportation. Others come here from abroad to study in our colleges and universities. But as soon as they obtain advanced degrees, we send them back home to compete against us. It makes no sense.

Now, I strongly believe that we should take on, once and for all, the issue of illegal immigration. And I am prepared to work with Republicans and Democrats to protect our borders, enforce our laws and address the millions of undocumented workers who are now living in the shadows. I know that debate will be difficult. I know it will take time. But tonight, let's agree to make that effort. And let's stop expelling talented, responsible young people who could be staffing our research labs or starting a new business, who could be further enriching this nation.

2012:

Let’s also remember that hundreds of thousands of talented, hardworking students in this country face another challenge: the fact that they aren’t yet American citizens. Many were brought here as small children, are American through and through, yet they live every day with the threat of deportation. Others came more recently, to study business and science and engineering, but as soon as they get their degree, we send them home to invent new products and create new jobs somewhere else. That doesn't make sense.

I believe as strongly as ever that we should take on illegal immigration. That’s why my administration has put more boots on the border than ever before. That’s why there are fewer illegal crossings than when I took office. The opponents of action are out of excuses. We should be working on comprehensive immigration reform right now.

But if election-year politics keeps Congress from acting on a comprehensive plan, let’s at least agree to stop expelling responsible young people who want to staff our labs, start new businesses, defend this country. Send me a law that gives them the chance to earn their citizenship. I will sign it right away.

2013:
Our economy is stronger when we harness the talents and ingenuity of striving, hopeful immigrants. And right now, leaders from the business, labor, law enforcement, and faith communities all agree that the time has come to pass comprehensive immigration reform. Real reform means strong border security, and we can build on the progress my Administration has already made – putting more boots on the southern border than at any time in our history, and reducing illegal crossings to their lowest levels in 40 years. Real reform means establishing a responsible pathway to earned citizenship – a path that includes passing a background check, paying taxes and a meaningful penalty, learning English, and going to the back of the line behind the folks trying to come here legally. And real reform means fixing the legal immigration system to cut waiting periods, reduce bureaucracy, and attract the highly-skilled entrepreneurs and engineers that will help create jobs and grow our economy.

In other words, we know what needs to be done. As we speak, bipartisan groups in both chambers are working diligently to draft a bill, and I applaud their efforts. Now let’s get this done. Send me a comprehensive immigration reform bill in the next few months, and I will sign it right away.

-- Elise Foley

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@ JohnCelockHP : A lot of cabinet members getting hugs from #POTUS as he leaves House chamber after #SOTU.

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President Obama received one of his biggest standing ovations of the night as he saluted the parents of Hadiya Pendleton, a young woman killed by gun violence, and demanded that Congress vote on gun control measures.

"One of those we lost was a young girl named Hadiya Pendleton," he said. "She was 15 years old. She loved Fig Newtons and lip gloss. She was a majorette. She was so good to her friends, they all thought they were her best friend. Just three weeks ago, she was here, in Washington, with her classmates, performing for her country at my inauguration. And a week later, she was shot and killed in a Chicago park after school, just a mile away from my house."

"Hadiya’s parents, Nate and Cleo, are in this chamber tonight, along with more than two dozen Americans whose lives have been torn apart by gun violence. They deserve a vote."

-- Christina Wilkie

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@ howardfineman : We are citizens.

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@ howardfineman : Obama's detailed practical tone is probably the right one for the times, tho his emotional appeal on guns clearly infuriated Rs

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@ HuffPostHill : TONIGHT'S WINNER: Desiline, who is 102 and stayed awake. TONIGHT'S LOSER: John Boehner, who is 63 and didn't.

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@ jmartpolitico : Finally some real energy in chamber after O cites tragedy after tragedy.

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@ howardfineman : Silence and reverence for Hadiya them shouts of demands for votes on the tough meAsures

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@ howardfineman : Hushed silence in the hall as obama turns to guns

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@ JohannaBarr : Obama on gun violence victims: "They deserve a vote. Gabby Giffords deserves a vote. The families of Newtown deserve a vote." #SOTU

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@ HuffPostHill : Strongest section of the speech coming up...

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HuffPost's Christina Wilkie reports:

To drive home his point on the need for action on gun control, Obama invoked a string of mass shootings that have occurred during his administration. The State of the Union audience included dozens of people whose lives had been affected by gun violence, invited as guests of congressional Democrats and the White House.

"[Former Rep.] Gabby Giffords deserves a vote. The families of Newtown deserve a vote. The families of Aurora deserve a vote. The families of Oak Creek, and Tucson, and Blacksburg, and the countless other communities ripped open by gun violence -- they deserve a simple vote," Obama said.

As he prepared to finish the speech, the president acknowledged -- and some might say disarmed -- the argument favored by many who oppose gun control laws that no law can eliminate all gun violence.

"Our actions will not prevent every senseless act of violence in this country. Indeed, no laws, no initiatives, no administrative acts will perfectly solve all the challenges I’ve outlined tonight," Obama said. "But we were never sent here to be perfect. We were sent here to make what difference we can, to secure this nation, expand opportunity, and uphold our ideals through the hard, often frustrating, but absolutely necessary work of self-government."

Click here to read more.

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flotus sotu

(Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

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HuffPost Style reports:

Michelle Obama looked absolutely stunning during President Obama's State of the Union address on Tuesday. FLOTUS literally glowed in her two-toned sheath, complete with a glittering maroon skirt, black detailed neckline and a floral brooch. Did we say she looked stunning?

We're thinking the dress looks like a Jason Wu and the brooch is Alexis Bittar, but stay tuned for fashion credits.

Click here to read more.

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@ jonward11 : First half of speech the president seemed much more combative. Seems to have settled in and down a bit during second half

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@ HuffPostHill : Seriously, someone offer Boehner a cigarette so he stands up.

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paul ryan sotu

(Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

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Tuesday night's speech was never going to be about foreign policy, and President Obama certainly managed to wedge the international portions of his speech into a compressed space.

Aside from the previously leaked news of an accelerated drawdown of troops from Afghanistan, Obama touched on a small handful of foreign policy issues, including the nuclear threats posed by Iran and North Korea, which just today conducted yet another test, and the responsibilities America holds to its returning veterans.

One of the longer sections focused on the Arab Spring, which has posed a significant challenge to the Obama administration as it has found itself torn between a desire to help shape events positively and a reticence to directly interject in other nations' affairs. That dilemma, with little added by way of a reconciliation, is laid out in the address, when Obama said that the U.S. will "insist on respect for the fundamental rights of all people," but "cannot presume to dictate the course of change." He added, two years into the game, "The process will be messy."

The many advocates, pundits and (increasingly) former administration officials who believe Obama ought to do more to advance the cause of rebel fighters in Syria will find this balancing act deeply disappointing. On the two-year-old conflict there, Obama promised only to "keep the pressure on a Syrian regime that has murdered its own people," but otherwise offers no hints of a change in policy. He suggested that he may have more to say during a Middle East tour next month.

-- Joshua Hersh

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@ HuffPostHill : Lindsey Graham now keeled over, yanking his hair out and DEMANDING BENGHAZI ANSWERS

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A brief mention in tonight's State Of The Union address on the issue that roiled the media last week -- the Obama administration's approach to targeted, extra-judicial killings, and their relative constitutionality. In the speech, Obama seems to want to have it both ways:

Today, the organization that attacked us on 9/11 is a shadow of its former self. Different al Qaeda affiliates and extremist groups have emerged – from the Arabian Peninsula to Africa. The threat these groups pose is evolving. But to meet this threat, we don’t need to send tens of thousands of our sons and daughters abroad, or occupy other nations. Instead, we will need to help countries like Yemen, Libya, and Somalia provide for their own security, and help allies who take the fight to terrorists, as we have in Mali. And, where necessary, through a range of capabilities, we will continue to take direct action against those terrorists who pose the gravest threat to Americans.

As we do, we must enlist our values in the fight. That is why my Administration has worked tirelessly to forge a durable legal and policy framework to guide our counterterrorism operations. Throughout, we have kept Congress fully informed of our efforts. I recognize that in our democracy, no one should just take my word that we’re doing things the right way. So, in the months ahead, I will continue to engage with Congress to ensure not only that our targeting, detention, and prosecution of terrorists remains consistent with our laws and system of checks and balances, but that our efforts are even more transparent to the American people and to the world.

So, first we have the assertion that "throughout, we have kept Congress fully informed of our efforts." I'm not sure that Congress would agree! But, then, neither does Obama, apparently, hence the "in the months ahead, I will continue to engage with Congress to ensure not only that our targeting, detention, and prosecution of terrorists remains consistent with our laws and system of checks and balances, but that our efforts are even more transparent to the American people and to the world."

Clever bit of wordplay, but you're either making a full and transparent effort now, or you're not. Obama claims to be doing both.

-- Jason Linkins

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Obama made one direct and one indirect reference to gay and lesbian people in his State of the Union address.

"It is our unfinished task to restore the basic bargain that built this country – the idea that if you work hard and meet your responsibilities, you can get ahead, no matter where you come from, what you look like, or who you love," he said near the start of the speech.

Later on, while discussing his role as commander-in-chief, he said, "We will ensure equal

treatment for all service members, and equal benefits for their families – gay and straight."

Fred Sainz, a spokesperson for the Human Rights Campaign, praised the president's words.

"These inclusions in the speech are meaningful," Sainz wrote in an email. "Both reaffirm his commitment to equality in ways that are substantively important. This President has done a lot for LGBT people but one of his greatest legacies will be the unapologetic way in which he has included LGBT people when speaking about our country and the way it should afford opportunity to all."

-- Lila Shapiro

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@ JohnCelockHP : Was that one party applause for #bipartisanship call for #cybersecurity? #SOTU

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(Photo by Charles Dharapak-Pool/Getty Images)

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  • Situation Room

    May 1, 2011: President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden, along with members of the national security team, receive an update on the mission against Osama bin Laden in the Situation Room of the White House, May 1, 2011. Seated, from left, are: Brigadier General Marshall B. "Brad" Webb, Assistant Commanding General, Joint Special Operations Command; Deputy National Security Advisor Denis McDonough; Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton; and Secretary of Defense Robert Gates. Standing, from left, are: Admiral Mike Mullen, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; National Security Advisor Tom Donilon; Chief of Staff Bill Daley; Tony Blinken, National Security Advisor to the Vice President; Audrey Tomason Director for Counterterrorism; John Brennan, Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism; and Director of National Intelligence James Clapper. Please note: a classified document seen in this photograph has been obscured. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Head Pat

    May 8, 2009: President Barack Obama bends over so the son of a White House staff member can pat his head during a family visit to the Oval Office May 8, 2009. The youngster wanted to see if the President's haircut felt like his own. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Fist-Bump

    Dec. 3, 2009: President Barack Obama fist-bumps custodian Lawrence Lipscomb in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building following the opening session of the White House Forum on Jobs and Economic Growth, Dec. 3, 2009. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Mohawk Baby

    July 4, 2012: President Barack Obama holds a baby while greeting guests during an Independence Day celebration on the South Lawn of the White House, July 4, 2012. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • The President

    July 26, 2012: President Barack Obama holds a Cabinet meeting in the Cabinet Room of the White House, July 26, 2012. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Oval Office Chase

    July 9, 2012: President Barack Obama runs around his desk in the Oval Office with Sarah Froman, daughter of Nancy Goodman and Mike Froman, Deputy National Security Advisor for International Economics, July 9, 2012. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • First Couple

    June 13, 2012: President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama wave goodbye to President Shimon Peres of Israel on the North Portico of the White House following the Presidential Medal of Freedom ceremony and dinner in his honor, June 13, 2012. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Holocaust Museum

    April 23, 2012: President Barack Obama tours the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., with Elie Wiesel, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and Holocaust survivor, and Sara Bloomfield, museum director, April 23, 2012. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Golden Girl

    June 11, 2012: President Barack Obama talks with Betty White in the Oval Office, June 11, 2012. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Venus In Transit

    April 24, 2012: President Barack Obama stops to view the moon and Venus before boarding Marine One in Boulder, Colo., April 24, 2012. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • 'Sweet Home Chicago'

    Feb. 21, 2012: President Obama joins in singing "Sweet Home Chicago" during the "In Performance at the White House: Red, White and Blues" concert in the East Room of the White House, Feb. 21, 2012. Participants include, from left: Troy "Trombone Shorty" Andrews, Jeff Beck, Derek Trucks, B.B. King, and Gary Clark, Jr. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • The Redeemer

    March 20, 2011: "The Obama family was scheduled to tour the Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio before dinner one night. But when heavy fog rolled in, they canceled the visit. After dinner, the fog had dissipated somewhat so they decided to make the drive up the mountain. It was quite clear when they arrived and then the fog started to roll back in. I managed to capture this silhouette as they viewed the statute one last time just before departure." (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Water Fight

    June 11, 2011: "The top photograph shows the President having a water gun fight with his daughter Sasha on her birthday weekend at Camp David. Unbeknownst to me, David Lienemann captured a similar photo of the Vice President on the very same day." (Official White House Photos by Pete Souza and David Lienemann)

  • Christmas Card

    Dec. 11, 2011: President Barack Obama, First Lady Michelle Obama, and their daughters, Malia, left, and Sasha, right, sit for a family portrait in the Oval Office, Dec. 11, 2011. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • MLK Memorial

    Oct. 14, 2011: President Barack Obama tours the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial in Washington, D.C., Oct. 14, 2011. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Balloon Man

    Oct. 11, 2011: "This photograph by Chuck Kennedy has to catch your eye. It shows Guinness Book of World Records holder John Cassidy performing a balloon act for First Lady Michelle Obama in the Diplomatic Reception Room following a Let's Move event." (Official White House Photo by Chuck Kennedy)

  • Mandela

    June 21, 2011: First Lady Michelle Obama meets with former President Nelson Mandela of South Africa at Mandela's home in Houghton, South Africa, June 21, 2011. (Official White House Photo by Samantha Appleton)

  • Joplin, Mo.

    May 29, 2011: President Barack Obama greets Hugh Hills, 85, in front of his home in Joplin, Mo., May 29, 2011. Hills hid in a closet during the tornado, which destroyed the second floor and half the first floor of his house. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Daycare

    June 9, 2011: President Barack Obama greets children at a day care facility adjacent to daughter Sasha's school in Bethesda, Md., following her 4th grade closing ceremony, June 9, 2011. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Tucson Shooting

    Jan. 10, 2011: President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama walk towards the White House after observing a moment of silence for the victims of the Arizona shooting, on the South Lawn, Jan. 10, 2011. White House staff joined the President and First Lady for the moment of silence.(Official White House Photo by Chuck Kennedy)

  • What's Up?

    March 7, 2011: President Barack Obama, Prime Minister Julia Gillard of Australia, and members of the Australian and American delegations look up at the presidential seal in the Oval Office ceiling following their bilateral meeting, March 7, 2011. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Inclement Weather

    May 31, 2010: "The skies opened up on Memorial Day outside of Chicago. When the lightning began, the Secret Service told the President that it was too dangerous to proceed. He took the stage by himself and informed the audience that his speech was canceled and that for everyone's safety, they should return to their busses. Later, he boarded a few of the busses to thank them for attending and apologized for not being able to speak." (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Power Walk

    July 20, 2010: President Barack Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron walk across the South Lawn of the White House, July 20, 2010. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Oil Spill

    May 28, 2010: President Barack Obama and Lafourche Parish President Charlotte Randolf, left, inspect a tar ball as they look at the effect the BP oil spill is having on Fourchon Beach in Port Fourchon, La., May 28, 2010. (Official White House Photo by Chuck Kennedy)

  • Finally

    March 21, 2010: President Barack Obama, Vice President Joe Biden, and senior staff, react in the Roosevelt Room of the White House, as the House passes the health care reform bill, March 21, 2010. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • First Pitch

    March 31, 2010: President Barack Obama practices his pitching form with personal aide Reggie Love and Jake Levine in the Rose Garden of the White House, March 31, 2010. The President threw out the ceremonial first pitch on opening day of the baseball season prior to the game between the Washington Nationals and the Philadelphia Phillies.

  • 3D

    Feb. 1, 2009: "During a Super Bowl watching party in the White House theatre, the President and First Lady join their guests in watching one of the TV commercials in 3D." (Official White House photo by Pete Souza)

  • Bo

    March 15, 2009: "The Obama family was introduced to a prospective family dog at a secret greet on a Sunday. After spending about an hour with him, the family decided he was the one. Here, the dog ran alongside the President in an East Wing hallway. The dog returned to his trainer while the Obama's embarked on their first international trip. I had to keep these photos secret until a few weeks later, when the dog was brought 'home' to the White House and introduced to the world as Bo." (Official White House photo by Pete Souza)

  • Moment Of Reflection

    Jan. 20, 2009: "President-elect Barack Obama was about to walk out to take the oath of office. Backstage at the U.S. Capitol, he took one last look at his appearance in the mirror." (Official White House photo by Pete Souza)

  • Snowball Fight

    Dec. 19, 2009: "Snowball in hand, the President chases Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel on the White House colonnade. To escape, Rahm ran through the Rose Garden, which unfortunately for him, was knee-deep in snow." (Official White House photo by Pete Souza)

  • Nobel

    Dec. 10, 2009: President Barack Obama looks at the Nobel Peace Prize medal for the first time at the Norwegian Nobel Institute in Oslo, Norway, Dec. 10, 2009. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Presidential Trio

    Jan. 16, 2010: "President Obama had called on the two former Presidents to help with the situation in Haiti. During their public remarks in the Rose Garden, President Clinton had said about President Bush, 'I've already figured out how I can get him to do some things that he didn't sign on for.' Later, back in the Oval, President Bush is jokingly asking President Clinton what were those things he had in mind." (Official White House photo by Pete Souza)

  • Wounded Warriors

    Oct. 8, 2009: President Barack Obama watches as members of the National Naval Medical Center's Marine Wounded Warrior basketball team play on the White House basketball court, Oct. 8, 2009. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Shoot The J

    Oct. 8, 2009: President Barack Obama takes a shot during a game with Cabinet secretaries and members of Congress on the White House basketball court, Oct. 8, 2009. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Grand Canyon

    Aug. 16, 2009: President Barack Obama looks at the Grand Canyon in Arizona on Aug. 16, 2009. (Official White House photo by Pete Souza)

  • Ted Kennedy

    April 21, 2009: President Barack Obama and Sen. Ted Kennedy walk down the South Lawn sidewalk at the White House April 21, 2009. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • The Pope

    July 10, 2009: President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama meet with Pope Benedict XVI at the Vatican on July 10, 2009. (Official White House photo by Pete Souza)

  • Punch

    July 13, 2009: President Barack Obama feigns a punch while talking about health care reform with Nancy-Ann DeParle, Peter Orszag, Phil Schiliro and Larry Summers in the Outer Oval Office, July 13, 2009. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Teasing

    June 26, 2009: President Barack Obama jokingly reacts to news that staffer Nora Becker will be leaving to pursue a joint MD and PhD in healthcare economics, during the White House staff picnic on the South Lawn, June 26, 2009. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Nancy Reagan

    June 2, 2009: President Barack Obama and former First Lady Nancy Reagan walk side-by-side through Center Hall in the White House, June 2, 2009. To the left of Mrs. Reagan hangs her official White House portrait as First Lady. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • Cairo Visit

    June 4, 2009: Secretary of State Hillary Clinton recounts a story to President Barack Obama, Senior Advisors David Axelrod and Valerie Jarrett, outside the Sultan Hassan Mosque in Cairo, Egypt, June 4, 2009. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • The Sphinx

    June 4, 2009: President Barack Obama tours the Egypt's Great Sphinx of Giza (left) and the Pyramid of Khafre, June 4, 2009. (Official White House photo by Pete Souza)

  • Behind The Camera

    Feb. 18, 2009: President Barack Obama takes aim with a photographer's camera backstage prior to remarks about providing mortgage payment relief for responsible homeowners at Dobson High School, Mesa, Ariz., Feb. 18, 2009. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

  • First Day

    Jan. 21, 2009: President Barack Obama walks into the Oval Office for his first full day in office, Jan. 21, 2009. His Personal Aide Reggie Love stands nearby. (Official White House photo by Pete Souza)