By: Stephanie Pappas, LiveScience Senior Writer
Published: 02/19/2013 11:08 AM EST on LiveScience
Whether you pulled the lever for Barack Obama or Mitt Romney may reflect how your brain copes with risk, new research finds.
The study, which examined the brain activity of 35 men and 47 women registered as either Democrat or Republican, found no difference in the amount of risk people of each political persuasion were willing to take on during a gambling game. But the way the brain processed risk worked differently between the groups, with Republicans showing more activity in an area linked with reward, fear and risky decisions and Democrats showing more activity in a spot related to processing emotion and internal body cues.
The findings hint at basic differences between people with different values, said study researcher Darren Schreiber of the University of Exeter.
"The ability to accurately predict party politics using only brain activity while gambling suggests that investigating basic neural differences between voters may provide us with more powerful insights than the traditional tools of political science," Schreiber said in a statement. [The 10 Greatest Mysteries of the Mind]
The politics of risk
Recent investigations into the psychology of liberals and conservatives have found a number of subtle differences, from conservatives exhibiting more squeamishness to liberals paying less attention to negative stimuli or threats.
A 2011 study published in the journal Current Biology found differences in some brain structures between politically liberal and political conservative young adults. Many of these areas were linked to risk-assessment and decision-making, prompting Schreiber and his colleagues to wonder if they could find differences in how these areas function during risky tasks.
The researchers had previously conducted a study in which people underwent brain scans while playing a gambling game. In each round, the participants saw three numbers, 20, 40 and 80, flash on a screen. If they hit a button while 20 was up, they were guaranteed 20 cents. If they waited for the 40 or 80, they might get a payout of either 40 or 80 cents — but they might also lose that amount of money. Thus, they were choosing between a safe bet and two higher-paying but riskier options.
Using voting records, the researchers found out political party affiliation for 35 of the men and 47 of the women in that study. Political parties aren't a perfect match with ideology, but they come very close, the researchers wrote Feb. 13 in the journal PLOS ONE. Most Democrats hold liberal values, while most Republicans hold conservative values.
Comparing the Democrat and Republican participants turned up differences in two brain regions: the right amygdala and the left posterior insula. Republicans showed more activity than Democrats in the right amygdala when making a risky decision. This brain region is important for processing fear, risk and reward.
Meanwhile, Democrats showed more activity in the left posterior insula, a portion of the brain responsible for processing emotions, particularly visceral emotional cues from the body. The particular region of the insula that showed the heightened activity has also been linked with "theory of mind," or the ability to understand what others might be thinking.
While their brain activity differed, the two groups' behaviors were identical, the study found.
Schreiber and his colleagues can't say whether the functional brain differences nudge people toward a particular ideology or not. The brain changes based on how it is used, so it is possible that acting in a partisan way prompts the differences.
The functional differences did mesh well with political beliefs, however. The researchers were able to predict a person's political party by looking at their brain function 82.9 percent of the time. In comparison, knowing the structure of these regions predicts party correctly 71 percent of the time, and knowing someone's parents' political affiliation can tell you theirs 69.5 percent of the time, the researchers wrote.
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'Dr. Einstein Is Dead'
Albert Einstein died of internal bleeding in a Princeton, N.J. hospital on April 18, 1955. He was 76 years old.
Here, Einstein's body is loaded onto a hearse outside a funeral home in Princeton, on the day of his death. His body was moved from the hospital to the funeral home before being cremated in Trenton. His brain was not cremated with the rest of his body--it went missing for years.
Finding Einstein's Brain
In 1978, journalist Steven Levy traced the brain (which had been pickled and placed in a jar) to Dr. Thomas Harvey, pathologist who had worked at the Princeton hospital where Einstein died.
Where's The Brain?
Dr. Harvey (shown here) had removed the physicist's brain with an intent to study it. But whether he had permission to do so remains a matter of controversy.
'The Mind As Matter'
Dr. Harvey photographed the brain and cut it into about 240 sections for microscopic analysis. Here are two slices of the brain on display at the Wellcome Collection museum in London on March, 27, 2012. (AP Photo/Alastair Grant)
Where Is The Brain Now?
Bits of Einstein's brain reportedly now are scattered around the world. Most remain at the University Medical Center in Princeton, and in 2011, about 46 slivers of Einstein's brain went on display at the Mütter Museum and Historical Medical Library in Philadelphia. Slices of Einstein's brain were also recently shown at London's Wellcome Collection museum from March to June 2012 (pictured here).
Where Are The Brain Photos?
Photos of Einstein's intact brain had reportedly been taken by Dr. Harvey, but for years these were considered lost. But recently, 14 photos were found as part of a donation from the Harvey estate to the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Silver Spring, Md. In this photo. taken on Sept. 24, 2012, Dr. Phillip Epstein, left, and Steve Landers of the museum's Chicago team look at an image presented as part of an iPad app.
Einstein's Brain Gets An App
The app, created by the National Museum of Health and Medicine's Chicago branch, features microscopic views of Einstein's brain.
A Strange Find
Recent studies have shown that certain regions of Einstein's brain are unusually convoluted. In addition, the parietal lobes are "extraordinarily asymmetrical" and the somatosensory and motor cortices are "greatly expanded in the left hemisphere," Florida State University evolutionary anthropologist Dean Falk told The Huffington Post.
More Brain Cells?
Studies also show that Einstein's brain has more of a type of brain cell known as glial cells than the typical brain. Here, glial cells are seen in a rat brain stained with an antibody.
How Much Did His Brain Weigh?
But despite the differences in brain convolution and glial cells, Einstein's brain was actually average in volume. At about 2.7 pounds, It was slightly below average in weight.
Einstein Is In Good Company
Einstein wasn't the only great thinker whose brain was removed for study--the same is true for Vladimir Lenin and mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. This April 16, 1997 file photo shows Lenin embalmed in his tomb on Moscow's Red Square. (AP Photo/Sergei Karpukhin)