Your lifetime risk of developing heart failure is the same whether you're black or white, say researchers from Northwestern University in a study published this week in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. And regardless of race, that risk is high, the study authors warned.
Analyzing data from 39,000 participants in National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-sponsored cohorts Northwestern Medicine researcher Mark Huffman, M.D. and his colleagues estimated the lifetime risks for developing heart failure at age 45 through 95. They also explored the relationships between lifetime heart failure risk and risk factors such as obesity, blood pressure and prior heart attack.
Here's what they found:
- Whites and blacks with higher blood pressure and higher body mass index had a higher lifetime risk for heart failure.
- White males have the highest lifetime risk for heart failure, 30 to 42 percent
- Lifetime heart failure risk for black and white women is similar, 32 to 39 percent in white women, 24 to 46 percent in black women.
Though rates of heart failure appeared to be lower for black men than for whites at 20 to 29 percent, according to the authors of the report, the difference is more likely the result of higher rates of other causes of death that are common among African-American men, such as homicide, renal failure, and HIV infection, they noted.
"Heart failure is a disease of the aging, and on average, black men in America tend to have higher competing risks for death earlier in life," Huffman said in a release. "Because competing risks are higher, which is itself a major problem, relatively fewer black men have the opportunity to develop heart failure compared to white men in these studies, because they die sooner of other causes."
According to the U.S. National Library Of Medicine, heart failure is often a long-term (chronic) condition, though it can sometimes develop suddenly. Symptoms, including coughing, fatigue and loss of appetite, often begin slowly and may only occur when you are very active. Over time, you may notice breathing problems and other symptoms even when you are resting.
Related on HuffPost:
1. Not Smoking
While not entirely surprising, it doesn't make the message any less important: <a href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/smo/" target="_hplink">Smoking kills</a>. The habit is considered the No. 1 cause of preventable death and sickness in the U.S. Specifically, <a href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/smo/" target="_hplink">smoking cigarettes harms the heart</a> in that it damages heart and blood vessel function, thereby upping the risk of atherosclerosis (where your arteries harden), according to the National Institutes of Health.
2. Being Physically Active
Aerobic exercise is good for the heart in that it makes you take in more oxygen, helps you <a href="http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/aerobic-exercise/EP00002/NSECTIONGROUP=2" target="_hplink">keep to a healthy weight</a>, reduces plaque buildup in the arteries and helps to lower blood pressure, according to the Mayo Clinic. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, adults are recommended to get at least <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/guidelines/adults.html" target="_hplink">150 minutes of aerobic exercise</a> a week (moderate to intense level), and also do muscle-strengthening at least twice a week.
3. Maintaining Normal Blood Pressure Levels
<a href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/hbp/bp/bp.htm" target="_hplink">Blood pressure measurements</a> are written in terms of systolic over diastolic. Systolic pressure is "as the heart beats," according to the National Institutes of Health, while diastolic pressure is the relaxation of the heart between heartbeats. A person with a normal blood pressure level has a systolic blood pressure reading of 120 millimeters of mercury or less, and a diastolic blood pressure reading of 80 millimeters of mercury or less. A person is <a href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/hbp/detect/categ.htm" target="_hplink">considered hypertensive</a> (has high blood pressure) when the systolic blood pressure is between 140 and 159, and the diastolic blood pressure is between 90 and 99.
4. Maintaining Normal Blood Glucose Levels
Having chronically <a href="http://diabetes.webmd.com/blood-glucose" target="_hplink">high levels of glucose</a>, a kind of sugar, in the blood can lead kidney and blood vessel damage, according to WebMD. Insulin, a hormone in the body, is responsible for helping the body's cells to <a href="http://www.medicinenet.com/insulin/article.htm" target="_hplink">use glucose in the blood</a>. However, if the body doesn't have enough insulin or isn't able to use it properly, then <a href="http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hyperglycemia.html" target="_hplink">blood sugar levels may rise</a>, according to the American Diabetes Association. High blood sugar is considered a diabetes complication. Tests to check for high blood glucose can help show whether a person has diabetes, and are used to <a href="http://diabetes.webmd.com/blood-glucose" target="_hplink">monitor someone with diabetes</a> over time, WebMD reported.
5. Maintaining Normal Total Cholesterol Levels
<a href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/chol/wyntk.htm" target="_hplink">High cholesterol</a> is a known risk factor for heart disease, because it causes hardening of arteries going to the heart, according to the National Institutes of Health. When part of the heart is deprived of blood, it could trigger a heart attack. The <a href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/chol/wyntk.htm" target="_hplink">optimum total cholesterol level</a> is 200 or fewer milligrams of cholesterol per deciliter of blood, while having a total cholesterol level of 200 to 239 milligrams per deciliter is considered borderline high. High total cholesterol is having 240 milligrams of cholesterol per deciliter of blood, or more, according to the National Institutes of Health.
6. Having A Healthy Weight
Calculating your body mass index (BMI, a ratio of weight to height) is a good starting point for knowing if you're at a <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/index.html" target="_hplink">healthy weight</a>, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. According to the BMI chart, having a BMI of 18.5 or below is considered "underweight" and a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered "normal" or healthy weight. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 and above is considered obese. <a href="http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/" target="_hplink">Click here to calculate your BMI</a>. <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/index.html" target="_hplink">Waist circumference</a> can also give clues to your weight; a man may be at risk for health problems from obesity if his waist circumference is more than 40 inches, the CDC reported. For a non-pregnant woman, it's more than 35 inches.
7. Eating A Healthy Diet
While there are obviously differences in opinion depending on who you ask as to what you should or shouldn't eat for optimal health, there are some <a href="http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-healthy-diet/NU00196" target="_hplink">heart-healthy nutrition rules</a> that remain true across the board. The Mayo Clinic reports that eating a diet low in cholesterol and "bad" fats (saturated and trans fats), with low-fat proteins (like lean meats, fish and beans), whole grains (with lots of fiber), and little sodium is good for your heart. For more nutrition advice, <a href="http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/healthy-diet/NU00200" target="_hplink">click over to the Mayo Clinic</a>.
Follow a heart healthy diet to reduce your risk of coronary disease.