DETROIT -- The largest city in American history to file for bankruptcy protection is officially bankrupt.

U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Steven Rhodes ruled Tuesday that Detroit is eligible for Chapter 9 bankruptcy protection, allowing city officials to negotiate in court with bondholders, pension funds, unions and other stakeholders. Many say that bankruptcy is the only way the city can attempt to settle its debts, which have been estimated as high as $18 billion.

"The city cannot legally increase its tax revenues nor can it further reduce its expenses without further endangering health and safety," Rhodes said as he announced the ruling. Rhodes added that retiree pensions are also on the table for cuts, despite passionate arguments delivered by pension and union representatives in court.

In his ruling, Rhodes said the city had met most of the strict criteria detailed under the federal Chapter 9 bankruptcy law: the city is insolvent (unable to pay its debts and owing more than it can collect); the bankruptcy filing itself was constitutional; the city is in "service delivery insolvency" (meaning that it cannot afford to provide for the health and welfare of residents); and Detroit officials desire to adjust the municipality's debts and effect a plan of adjustment.

But one crucial component was establishing that city officials negotiated in good faith with its creditors before filing for bankruptcy. Rhodes said that the city did not negotiate in good faith on June 14, when it met with union leaders and other stakeholders, one month before filing for bankruptcy. The filing, and particularly Detroit's attempt to negotiate with creditors, has been hotly contested by unions and other debtors in court since the trial began in October.

Rhodes scolded city officials for offering only a vague plan that would give pensioners and other stakeholders pennies on the dollar for their debt and waiting only a month to hear counterproposals. Yet Rhodes ruled -- remarking that union and pension officials admitted at trial that pension cuts would not have been binding for its members -- that the sheer number of creditors and complexity rendered negotiations "impractical, impossible really."

Bankruptcy protection limits the legal actions the city's 100,000 creditors can take to collect money owed to them. Detroit Emergency Manager Kevyn Orr and other key city leaders will move to submit a plan to pay off whatever debts it can and move forward from bankruptcy. The plan of adjustment will undoubtedly call for concessions from all of Detroit's creditors, provide a list of assets that can be sold to raise funds, and lay out a plan for reinvesting in essential city services.

Despite the state of Michigan's constitutional guarantee of public pensions, Rhodes said Detroit pensioners cannot legally be treated differently than other creditors. Pension cuts for retirees and city employees could be part of the final plan of adjustment. Pensioners on average receive $20,000 a year or less. But the disputed amount of pension debt that the city actually owes will be decided in the future, Rhodes said.

Detroit "could have and should have filed for bankruptcy long before it did, perhaps even years before," Rhodes said. "Certainly the court must conclude that the bankruptcy filing was a foregone conclusion," he added, "at least in 2013."

“Time is of the essence and we will continue to move forward as quickly and efficiently as possible," Kevyn Orr said in a statement sent to The Huffington Post. "We plan to submit a Plan of Adjustment in the coming weeks, file a Disclosure Statement early next year and work to exit Chapter 9 protection by the end of September. We hope all parties will work together to help us develop a realistic restructuring plan that improves the financial condition of Detroit and the lives of its 700,000 citizens.”

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  • Could Detroit Come Back After Bankruptcy?

    We combed through Detroit Emergency Manager Kevyn Orr's 150-page-plus restructuring plan he released to the public in June 2013, weeks before the city's bankruptcy filing, after meeting with bondholders. Orr met with those creditors to negotiate Detroit's structural long-term debt, now said to total over $18 billion. Along with finances, the plan proposes 10 years' worth of improvements, priorities and changes that will affect residents, businesses, neighborhoods and visitors. Click through the slideshow to read our analysis of how Detroit could change after bankruptcy. You can see the nitty-gritty details for yourself by <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/14/detroit-restructuring-plan-bankruptcy-kevyn-orr_n_3442263.html?utm_hp_ref=detroit" target="_blank">reading the full report here</a>.

  • Vacant Buildings

    Mayor Dave Bing launched a program in April 2010 with the goal of demolishing 10,000 vacant structures by the end of his term. Over 5,000 of those abandoned buildings have been torn down, with the remainder scheduled to go by the end of 2013. But there was never enough money to fully rid Detroit of its blighted buildings. Orr's report says a funding gap of $40 million exists before Bing's goal can be completed. And while 10,000 demolitions is an insanely high number, Orr's report says that only covers 13 percent of the city's vacant buildings, and 26 percent of those that have been deemed dangerous.

  • Neighborhoods

    Orr's restructuring plan presents a number of ways the city can speed up blight removal. One tactic involves coordinating and simplifying the myriad local, regional and national agencies and statutes that regulate demolitions. Another priority is moving blighted land through the demolition process faster, in order to return those properties to private ownership (Pages 72 and 73). Police and fire departments will integrate their data so demolitions can be targeted to reduce crime and arson. Orr's budget calls for $50 million annually in 2014 and 2015 to battle blight, to be increased to $100 million each year for 2016 through 2018. Some of that money will have to be raised through grants and public-private partnerships.

  • Pensions

    According to the city's preliminary analysis, Detroit hasn't kept up on its obligations to beneficiaries of the General Retirement System and Detroit's Police & Fire Retirement System. By how much? A staggering $3.5 billion, says Orr, who writes, "At this level of underfunding, the City would have to contribute approximately $200 million to $350 million annually to fully fund currently accrued, vested benefits. Such contributions will not be made under the plan."

  • Retiree Health Benefits

    Under Orr's plan, pension funds would receive a proportional (pro rata) share of $2 billion in notes that the city would issue. But since that share of $2 billion won't equal the total amount of unfunded pension costs, the report notes, pensioners should expect "significant cuts in accrued, vested pension amounts for both active and currently retired persons." According to the Detroit Free Press, retiree health benefits will likely be<a href="http://www.freep.com/article/20130614/NEWS01/306140084" target="_blank"> transferred to modified medical benefit plans</a> that will come into effect with the Affordable Care Act. Those over the age of 65 would be transitioned to Medicare.

  • Detroit Police

    Hiring a new police chief was the first task on Kevyn Orr's Detroit Police checklist, but it's not the only change he recommends. Orr envisions using a data-driven approach to restructure DPD from top-to-bottom. Another priority is improving officer morale and giving the force the tools they need to do their jobs: bulletproof vests, tasers, vehicles and functional IT. He's also a fan of the "Broken Windows" policing theory piloted last year in the city's Rosedale Park neighborhood. In total, Orr plans to spend $26 million more on DPD in 2014, with an additional $66 million investment over the next four years.

  • Unsecured Creditors

    It should come as no surprise to readers that Detroit is bonded to the hilt. Creditors may take a <em>huge</em> hit on payments from the city, reportedly as little as 10 cents on the dollar. Orr has stopped paying some debts entirely, and his plan calls for reinvesting that money into city services after bankruptcy.

  • Detroit Fire Department

    Aging fleets of fire engines and facilities to maintain them threaten the impact of the Detroit Fire Department, which responds to around 30,000 calls every year. The restructuring plan calls for at least $6 million in additional investment over the next five years, with an $18.4 million facility investment in 2017. But the restructuring plan doesn't talk about hiring any more fire investigators -- as of Dec. 2012, the <a href="http://www.myfoxdetroit.com/story/20388988/detroit-only-has-12-arson-investigators-for-5000-fires-annually" target="_blank">department only had 12 on staff</a> to investigate more than 5,000 suspicious fires set in the city's neighborhoods every year.

  • Public Transit

    The restructuring plan mentions that DDOT, Detroit's underfunded bus system, could eventually be merged with a private company or SMART, the suburban public transportation system. There's also talk of bringing DDOT under the control of the new <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/12/rta-detroit_n_3586137.html" target="_blank">regional transit authority</a>. A consultant is apparently studying long-term solutions, including outsourcing (Pages 74 and 75). While it could make more sense long-term to have all of the region's transit under one umbrella, the RTA is too new to make that determination and doesn't yet have funding. In the event of a merger, gains in savings and efficiency may be balanced with layoffs.

  • Belle Isle

    Managing and maintaining the 982-acre Belle Isle Park costs the city of Detroit some $6 million annually. Orr's verdict on Belle Isle comes as no surprise: He says the city "intends to enter into lease transaction with State on generally the same terms as the State’s prior proposal," though no timetable is given (Page 87). That means "Detroit's crown jewel" is slated to become a state park managed by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Under the <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/29/belle-isle-state-park-plan-dead_n_2575256.html" target="_blank">previous 30-year lease proposal</a>, pedestrians and bikers would still be able to access the park for free. Motor vehicles would have to pay an annual $11 Recreation Passport fee to the MDNR, good for accessing any state park.

  • 36th District Court

    Orr proposes possibly transitioning to "paperless" transactions at the 36th District Court (Page 73). Welcome to the 21st century, guys!

  • Residents Who Work Outside The City

    Orr's report proposes levying an income tax for reverse commuters -- those who live in Detroit but work outside the city (Page 81). The City loses approximately $30 to $45 million of income tax revenue every year, claimed to be 15 to 20 percent of the total tax collected, from reverse commuter non-filers. Expect new legislation to tax these residents.

Current Mayor Dave Bing said at a press conference following Rhodes' announcement that bankruptcy protection could help Detroit deal with issues that were "20 or 30 years in the making."

"It gives us a chance to move forward with a clean slate and make good decisions that will improve the quality of life for Detroit's citizens," Bing said.

Had Rhodes found the city ineligible for bankruptcy protection, Detroit would likely have been sued by thousands of creditors in court for failing to pay its debts. In the Associated Press, Orr said that if Detroit didn't meet Chapter 9 requirements, it would be an "Armageddon-like scenario" for the city, which has lost more than a million residents since 1950.

The city's credit rating was downgraded to "D" by Fitch Ratings in September after they stopped paying on $600 million of general obligation debt. Detroit also received a pledge for a $350 million loan through Barclay's to pay off its pension swaps debts, with the balance being invested in city services, according to the Detroit Free Press.

Rhodes also ruled that Detroit's emergency manager is legal and doesn't violate the Home Rule act, another loss for opponents to the bankruptcy and the strong powers granted to state-appointed Orr, a former bankruptcy attorney for the Jones Day firm who represented Chrylser during the automaker's restructuring.

But the legal battles still aren't over in the Motor City. The AFSCME, the city's largest employee union, filed an appeal of Rhodes' decision immediately after it was announced, the Detroit News reported.

Last week, a coalition made up of Detroit's largest employee union, several bondholders and a European bank filed a motion in court asking Judge Rhodes to appoint a committee to conduct an evaluation of the market value of the city-owned art collection at the Detroit Institute of Arts (DIA). The collection, which could be valued in the billions, could be ruled a sellable asset by Rhodes, the Detroit Free Press reported.

The DIA released a statement Tuesday that said the art collection, built by charitable donations and held in the public trust, has survived municipal fiscal crises before, including the Great Depression.

"The DIA remains hopeful that the Emergency Manager will recognize the City's fiduciary duty to protect the museum art collection for future generations and that he will abide by the Michigan Attorney General's opinion that the City holds the art collection in trust and cannot use it to satisfy City obligations," the statement read. The DIA statement also said the art museum would "take action" if the collection is further threatened.

A report released in November by the liberal think tank Demos eviscerated the city's leaders for poor financial decisions and suggested that Detroit's long term debt was being exaggerated. The pension funds have also disputed Orr's numbers; they say the two pension funds (one servicing workers, and one for police and firefighters) are only $644 million underfunded, rather than Orr's claim of $3.5 billion.

“To say the pension fund killed the city, it’s like if you were stabbed, strangled and blown up, did you die from the strangling?” Senior Fellow Wallace Turbeville said during a media call Nov. 20.

David Allen is a 50-year old retired Detroit firefighter who lost the use of his legs during a spinal injury sustained on the job in Detroit. He was quoted in a statement objecting to any possible cut of his pension.

“I worked hard for Detroit for 20 years, played by the rules, and already made significant sacrifices – taking pay cut after pay cut,” he said. “In return for risking my life to serve my community, the city promised to take care of my family – but instead the city is retiring us into poverty."

Mayor-elect Mike Duggan, who will take office in 2014, issued a statement calling the filing "a day in Detroit's history that none of us wanted to see." He said he was ready to work on the plan of adjustment phase to create a blueprint for the city's future.

"I'm going to do everything I can to advocate on behalf of Detroit's future in this process," he said. "We need to make sure the retirees are treated fairly on the pensions they earned and we need to make certain we come out of bankruptcy in a way we can afford to provide the quality of city services the people of Detroit deserve."

Also on HuffPost:

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  • The Caesars Windsor Casino stands in contrast to an abandoned warehouse in Detroit. (Photo by Bonnie Jo Mount/The Washington Post via Getty Images)

  • A tree stump sits among the ruins of the Packard Automotive Plant, a 35 acre site where luxury cars were manufactured until the 1950s on May 2, 2013 in Detroit. (Photo by Ann Hermes/The Christian Science Monitor via Getty Images)

  • Graffiti covers an abandoned building February 24, 2013 in Detroit, Michigan. (Photo by J.D. Pooley/Getty Images)

  • In a photo shot on Tuesday, Feb. 14, 2012, a dog looks out from behind a wall in an abandoned home in Detroit. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio)

  • Abandoned houses are painted orange as part of Object Orange: Detroit, Disneyland, Demolition, are located off of the Davison Freeway service drive in Highland Park, Michigan on Thursday, May 18, 2006. (Photo by Jeff Kowalsky/Bloomberg via Getty Images)

  • Residents that live in Detroit's east end came out of their homes to watch the third abandoned building fire of the day at the corner of Frederick and Chene. (Photo by Lucas Oleniuk/Toronto Star via Getty Images)

  • In a July 31, 2012 photo, a boat is dumped in a field in east Detroit. Abandoned lots, alleys and neglected parks in Detroit used to be a favorite destination for discarded tires and trash. But over the past few months they have become dumping grounds for the dead. At least seven bodies have been found in some of the most desolated haunts in a half-empty city. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio)

  • A City of Detroit fire station that was recently closed is seen February 24, 2013 in Detroit, Michigan. (Photo by J.D. Pooley/Getty Images)

  • Part of the Brewster-Douglass housing project site is shown in Detroit, Friday, March 18, 2011. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • The abandoned Detroit Public Schools book depository

  • Detail of unused books left to rot at the abandoned Detroit Public Schools book depository.

  • The view from the inside of the abandoned Fisher Body Plant in Detroit.

  • Graffiti covers a crumbling building February 24, 2013 in Detroit, Michigan. (Photo by J.D. Pooley/Getty Images)

  • The General Motors (GM) world headquarters is seen February 24, 2013 in Detroit, Michigan. (Photo by J.D. Pooley/Getty Images)

  • Detroit firefighters arrived on the scene of an abandoned dwelling fire at 2645/51 Frederick Street in Detroit's east end. (Photo by Lucas Oleniuk/Toronto Star via Getty Images)

  • A sign advertising building rates is seen on an abandoned building on February 24, 2013 in Detroit, Michigan. (Photo by J.D. Pooley/Getty Images)

  • An abandoned boat filled with trash sits on Conant Street in Detroit, Michigan, on Sunday, April 9, 2006. Detroit eliminated bulk trash pick up three months ago due to budget cuts. (Photo by Jeff Kowalsky/Bloomberg via Getty Images)

  • A man walks past an abandoned house that is painted orange as part of Object Orange: Detroit, Disneyland, Demolition, located off of the Davison Freeway service drive in Highland Park, Michigan on Thursday, May 18, 2006. (Photo by Jeff Kowalsky/Bloomberg via Getty Images)

  • Barbed wire blocks the entrance of the abandoned Michigan Central Station on May 2, 2013 in Detroit, Michigan. The station was opened in 1913, closed in 1988, and has fallen into disrepair since. (Photo by Ann Hermes/The Christian Science Monitor via Getty Images)

  • Steam rises from a manhole at dawn among abandoned buildings and factories along East Warren Avenue on May 2, 2013 in Detroit, Michigan. (Photo by Ann Hermes/The Christian Science Monitor via Getty Images)

  • A man walks past the abandoned East Grand Boulevard Methodist Chruch on May 2, 2013 in Detroit, Michigan. (Photo by Ann Hermes/The Christian Science Monitor via Getty Images)

  • Two abandoned apartment buildings burn on Waverly Street in the declining Detroit enclave of Highland Park. Last year the Detroit Fire Department received 27,000 calls. (Photo by Lucas Oleniuk/Toronto Star via Getty Images)

  • Michigan Central Stationis Detroit's most famous ruin, with the train station last open in 1988. Designed by the same architects as New York's Grand Central Station.

  • An interior shot of the massive Michigan Central Station.

  • A worker measures the former Detroit Fire Department Ladder No. 10 firehouse on Mt. Elliott in Detroit, Wednesday, May 8, 2013. Detroit plans to sell seven unused firehouses and a renovated but long-vacant police facility that once housed horses as part of an effort to raise money and encourage redevelopment. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • A July 31, 2012 photo shows a memorial to two killed teens whose decomposing bodies were found July 27 in a field in east Detroit. Abandoned lots, alleys and neglected parks in Detroit used to be a favorite destination for discarded tires and trash. But over the past few months they have become dumping grounds for the dead. At least seven bodies have been found in some of the most desolated haunts in a half-empty city. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio)

  • This Oct. 24, 2012 file photo shows a graffiti-marked abandoned home north of downtown Detroit, in background. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio, File)

  • Graffiti covers an abandoned building at the former Belle Isle Safari Zoo February 24, 2013 in Detroit, Michigan. (Photo by J.D. Pooley/Getty Images)

  • In this Dec. 11, 2008 file photo, pedestrians walk by the abandoned Packard plant in Detroit. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio, File)

  • Members of the Detroit Fire Department exit after putting out a fire in an abandoned house in Detroit on Thursday, Feb. 21, 2013. Photographer: Jeff Kowalsky/Bloomberg via Getty Images

  • Shuttered Packard motor car company plant in Detroit.

  • In this Oct. 24, 2012, photo, a broken streetlight lies on a sidewalk east of downtown Detroit. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio)

  • The abandoned Harbor Light Center, in Detroit, Michigan on July 21, 2012. (Photo By Raymond Boyd/Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

  • The abandoned Hotel Eddystone, in Detroit, Michigan on July 21, 2012. (Photo By Raymond Boyd/Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

  • An abandoned home is seen on February 24, 2013 in Detroit, Michigan. (Photo by J.D. Pooley/Getty Images)

  • The abandoned First Unitarian Church, in Detroit, Michigan on July 21, 2012. (Photo By Raymond Boyd/Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

  • The abandoned Detroit Public Schools book depository.

  • The back of an abandoned building facing, in Detroit, Michigan on July 21, 2012. (Photo By Raymond Boyd/Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

  • Abandoned Detroit Central Depot shot from street.

  • This Oct. 24, 2012, photo shows a broken streetlight base on a sidewalk east of downtown Detroit. When the World Series was broadcast that week, television viewers saw vibrant crowds and skyline shots of the city. Yet beyond the hot dogs and home runs, Detroit is struggling to cross home plate. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio)

  • The General Motors world headquarters building is shown near an abandoned building March 30, 2009 in Detroit. (Photo by Bill Pugliano/Getty Images)

  • Exterior of abandoned house in Detroit, a familiar sight in many neighborhoods.

  • Detroit Abandoned Buildings

    The back of the abandoned Michigan Central Station on May 1, 2013 in Detroit. (Photo by Ann Hermes/The Christian Science Monitor via Getty Images)

  • An abandoned home in Detroit.

  • An abandoned building in Detroit.

  • In a July 31, 2012 photo, a trashed strewn street is seen in east Detroit. Abandoned lots, alleys and neglected parks in Detroit used to be a favorite destination for discarded tires and trash. But over the past few months they have become dumping grounds for the dead. At least seven bodies have been found in some of the most desolated haunts in a half-empty city. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio)

  • Graffiti decorates the ruins of the Packard Automotive Plant, a 35 acre site where luxury cars were manufactured until the 1950s on May 2, 2013 in Detroit, Michigan. Sitting on the East side of Detroit, the former automotive plant is now a site for scavengers, urban explorers and graffiti artists. (Photo by Ann Hermes/The Christian Science Monitor via Getty Images)

  • The abandoned Fisher Body Plant.

  • The Fisher Body Plant in Detroit, which is abandoned.

  • Part of the Brewster-Douglass housing project site is shown in Detroit, Friday, March 18, 2011. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

  • Aerial photograph of the Michigan Central Station's Beaux-Arts facade in Detroit, Michigan.