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Guns, Steel, Grit and Grief

David Katz, M.D.   |   January 26, 2015   10:12 AM ET

Michael Davidson, the cardiothoracic surgeon shot and killed in Brigham and Women's Hospital last week by the distraught son of a woman on whom he had operated some time ago and who died in November, was a medical student of mine at Yale back in the early 1990s.

Some few of my former students, including our newly minted surgeon general, Vivek Murthy, became friends of mine, and we stayed close over the years. I didn't know Dr. Davidson that well, but seeing his photo in the Boston Globe, I certainly remember his face. It's a good face.

I can't speak to Dr. Davidson's character corresponding to that good face, but others can -- and have. According to colleagues, he was one of the greats, the kind of doctor every medical student wants to be, and the kind of doctor every patient wants to have. By all accounts, including those of patients, he was deeply caring. He was thoughtful, expressive, and clear. Peers credit him with the grit to wield the steel of scalpels in situations where other surgeons would balk, great surgical skill, the brilliance of innovation, and an extraordinary work ethic.

In addition, Dr. Davidson had a life outside the hospital. That life, according to the Boston Globe, included a wife -- also a physician -- and three children, with another on the way. That baby, of course, will now never meet his/her father.

The story line of this tragedy is almost unbearably heart rending.

And there's more. The shooter, who also took his own life, left behind a complicated legacy of love, anguish and disbelief. He had four grown children, and siblings, who say he was nothing but a good guy who was devastated by the death of his mother, with whom he was very close. Rightly or wrongly, he blamed his mother's death on an adverse reaction to medication, and rightly or wrongly, he apparently implicated Dr. Davidson in the use of that medication.

From the information available thus far, it could be that the medication had nothing to do with the patient's death, and that Dr. Davidson had nothing to do with prescribing the medication. Either way, there is nothing in the record to suggest any misstep in the treatment; just a bad outcome. Unfortunately, sick people die sometimes despite all that modern medicine can offer, and even when everything is done right.

Of course, sometimes patients die because something is done wrong, too.

But accuracy about who did what, when, and whether or not it was appropriate is not a priority in a moment of anguished passion. Passion clouds the mind, and tenses the muscles -- including those of the finger, on the trigger.

Admittedly, Mr. Pasceri might have hurt, or even killed Dr. Davidson without a gun. And he might have killed himself without one, too. But both scenarios are a whole lot less likely. Try to remember the last time you heard about a murder/suicide involving, for instance, a knife.

I myself was stabbed long ago, on a train while traveling in Europe. I fought back with no weapon, and lived to tell the tale. If my assailant had used a gun instead, I suspect it would have been the end of the line for me.

There is a bitter irony underlying this dreadful story that has torn holes in two families at least. The shooting took place in the hospital where our new surgeon general worked, prior to his confirmation. That confirmation was held up for months and months because Dr. Murthy had stated publicly that guns were a public health issue. So here we are, in the immediate aftermath of that long forestalled confirmation, and a current colleague and former classmate of the surgeon general was shot dead with a gun also used to kill its owner, in a health care setting.

The irony is too thick to cut with a knife; you would have to shoot through it. Of course guns are a public health issue, if suicide is; if bleeding is; if emergency surgery is.

The public discussion about who has guns when, where, and for what obviously includes rights related to the use of such arms. But it cannot exclude the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness -- all taken from Dr. Davidson. It cannot exclude the need to do what is right.

A finger on a trigger in a moment of acute grief is very unlikely to result in the right thing being done. In a moment of aggrieved passion, beastly and beatific look the same; it's a particularly bad time to pull a trigger.

That makes it a bad time to be holding a gun. That's where my sad ruminations on this tale take me. Guns and acute grief make for a very bad combination.

Whatever my own beliefs and preferences, I am not currently challenging any contentions about the right to bear arms, or the value of guns in self-defense. I am merely asserting this: if liberal gun policies mean more guns carried by more people more of the time, the likelihood of a gun in the hands of any given transiently, passionately aggrieved person goes up. This is a statement of statistical fact. Guns and such grief are a volatile mix.

Killing any other way requires real intimacy, and that's hard. Guns don't kill, people do, we are told. But guns allow those people an antiseptic, insulating distance. They make killing easier, and more efficient. One's hands need not even get dirty.

And in that way, they can convert the kind of emotional devastation we have all felt at one time or another into an irrevocable tragedy such as played out in Boston last week.

Guns and grief are a bad combination. Our judgment is clouded and undone in moments of aggrieved passion; we are least suited at such times to take on the roles of both jury and judge, leaving aside the illegality of such vigilantism. We may, in the throes of passion, misconstrue causes and misdirect blame. But we may hope to live through such moments, and see in a calmer, clarifying light.

First, though, we need to live through such moments at all. Guns in aggrieved hands make that tragically less likely.

-fin

David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACPM, FACP

Director, Yale University Prevention Research Center; Griffin Hospital
President, American College of Lifestyle Medicine
Editor-in-Chief, Childhood Obesity

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Author: Disease Proof

ReThink Review: American Sniper -- Can There Be Heroes on the Wrong Side of History?

Jonathan Kim   |   January 23, 2015    8:28 AM ET

If you've followed my reviews for these years, you know that one of my biggest pet peeves in American films (and America in general) is our unhealthy, dangerous worship of soldiers, where every American soldier is considered a hero who defends American freedom even if they did nothing heroic, America's freedom was never at risk, and the real reasons for waging the war were far from noble. All of this results in unquestioning, knee-jerk, bipartisan public support for any American war, regardless of the war's justness or logic, where critics of those wars are accused of desiring the deaths of American soldiers. For some strange reason, I thought American Sniper, based on the book and true story of Navy SEAL sniper Chris Kyle, might somehow be different. But with conservative Clint Eastwood directing, American Sniper continues America's worship of soldiers and our obsession with guns in a film that ignores the fact that the Iraq war in which Kyle fought is arguably the worst debacle in American history. Watch a clip from American Sniper below.

Bradley Cooper, who also produced American Sniper, plays Chris Kyle, a Texan whose father installs a savior complex in Chris as a child that makes him believe that his purpose in life is to defend others (meaning other Americans). Outraged by attacks against Americans overseas, Kyle joins the Navy SEALs and uses his natural gift for sharpshooting to become a sniper. After the 9/11 attacks, Kyle is deployed to Iraq, where he claims his primary goal is to protect the lives of American soldiers, whether it's picking enemies off from a distance or leading Marines doing house searches. We then watch as Kyle returns home and then back to Iraq on multiple tours, ignoring the symptoms of PTSD he's exhibiting, the fact that Iraq had nothing to do with 9/11, and the protests of his wife (Siena Miller) who is left to raise their two young kids alone while living in constant fear for her husband's safety.

American Sniper is competently made. Cooper gives a nicely natural and understated performance as Kyle, with him being humble and effacing while others are eager to do the praising. The action scenes are sufficiently tense, though I would've liked to know more about the special training snipers receive to mold their minds and bodies for such a specialized task instead of the film's more typical gunfight scenes that are similar to those found in nearly every military action movie.

And that's about all of the good things I have to say about American Sniper. So now let me get into what I dislike about this movie and why its six Oscar nominations are as regrettable as the five nominations earned by 2012's Zero Dark Thirty, a film that lied not only about the efficacy and morality of torture, but in the role torture played in locating Osama bin Laden. There are some spoilers here, unless you already know what happened to the real Chris Kyle.

Kyle as portrayed in American Sniper is a character with little or no emotional arc. He maintains the same naïve, simplistic beliefs throughout his life in the existence of evil and his role as a uniquely violent protector against it as he did when his hardass father rather menacingly imposes the idea on him as a child. Kyle serves four tours in Iraq, witnessing all the horrors of war, but his views on war, his role in it, and killing people do not seem to change him at all. He does not seem haunted by any of his over 160 confirmed kills and states outright that he has absolutely no regrets about any of them aside from the targets that got away. Throughout the film, he maintains zero empathy for or understanding of the Iraqi people and repeatedly refers to Iraqis and anyone he's fighting as "savages", which is gross, ignorant, and racist. With all he experiences -- and despite seemingly having PTSD, which he seems to conquer by toughing it out without any real treatment -- Kyle ends the movie as the same affable, soft-spoken, gun-loving guy with a savior complex he was at the start of the movie, despite having killed hundreds of people.

All that may be faithful to what Kyle was like in real life. But in the stories we love, the main characters usually go through some kind of journey or experience where they gain insights about the world, humanity, or themselves that changes them forever. But in American Sniper, the only thing that changes about Kyle is that he finally understands that his wife needs him at home and will divorce him if he doesn't stop leaving her to raise their kids alone, and that he can help American soldiers without killing people. Other than that, Kyle is completely unchanged, with his war experience simply confirming everything he believed about himself and the nature of war that he thought before he had ever fought in one, apparently never regretting, questioning, or even dwelling on the morality and rightness of anything he did or the war itself.

And that's a big reason why American Sniper lost me for good.

While we rightly admire people who make great sacrifices for a just, worthy cause, Kyle was fighting in the Iraq war, probably the biggest foreign policy clusterfuck in American history, and arguably one of the worst fuckups by any government ever. We invaded and occupied a country based on utter lies -- or, to be generous, an incomprehensibly massive intelligence failure -- directly and indirectly causing the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Iraqis, destabilizing the entire region, wrecking America's image and legitimacy around the world, costing American taxpayers trillions of dollars, and turning us into a country that lies about torture, then endorses and commits it unapologetically.

That leads me to the key issue I have with soldier worship and American Sniper specifically: Should a soldier be celebrated as a hero for serving bravely while fighting on the wrong side of history in a war that is neither just, moral, or even legal? Is it possible to be heroic in the act of committing a crime by saving the lives of the criminals? Because what Chris Kyle was doing was "protecting" American soldiers who were part of the illegal occupation of a sovereign country based on the thoroughly debunked lies that Iraq was involved in the 9/11 attacks, possessed weapons of mass destruction they would give to terrorists, and that occupying Iraq would prevent terrorist attacks elsewhere. Kyle's father explains to him that there are three types of people in the world, and that Chris is a "sheepdog" given "the gift of aggression" to protect the naïve and helpless "sheep" from the evil "wolves" who "use violence to prey on the weak." As we watch Kyle and a group of Marines bust down a family's door and point guns at the heads of women and children, could Kyle have once entertained the notion that who the "wolves" and the "sheepdogs" are might be perceived differently from the wrong end of a rifle?

I'm guessing a lot of people would say that a soldier's heroism has nothing to do with the so-called "politics" of the war he's fighting in, and that what makes a soldier like Chris Kyle a hero isn't that he was fighting in a just war for a good cause (since he wasn't), but that his actions saved the lives of his fellow soldiers. But if we accept the definition that a soldier who kills his enemies to protect his comrades is a hero, should we call Mustafa, the Syrian sniper depicted in the film as Kyle's nemesis (though barely mentioned in Kyle's book), a hero for protecting his fellow fighters from American troops? Don't all soldiers on any side of every war attempt to save and protect their comrades? Or as Seth Rogen noted, what about the fictional Nazi sharpshooter Fredrick Zoller in Quentin Tarantino's World War II film Inglourious Basterds, who Germans in the film consider an inspiring war hero for singlehandedly killing 200 Allied soldiers, and is even the subject of his own movie celebrating his skill, bravery, and commitment? If the "politics" of the side of the war you're fighting on are truly irrelevant, wouldn't we call a real-life Zoller a hero for saving the lives of countless Nazis soldiers?

Now before anyone says that I'm calling Chris Kyle a Nazi, I'm not. What I'm saying is that when it comes to calling people war heroes, fighting on the wrong side of history trumps whatever you do in service of that wrong side, regardless of the skill or bravery it required. The Germans know this, which is why you won't find any war memorials in Germany celebrating the accomplishments of "heroic" Nazi soldiers who protected their comrades by aiding in the defeat of Allied soldiers. And I suspect those who claim that the "politics" of a war have no bearing on a soldier's heroism also know this, which is why you'll never hear them call anyone who has ever fought against American troops a hero, regardless of their skill, patriotism, bravery, or lethality.

Contrary to what people like Kyle think, good and evil are rarely absolutes, especially in war, and determining which is which more often comes down to the perspective from the side you're on and the clarity that hopefully comes with experience, knowledge, and time. However, these are nuances Kyle seems incapable of acknowledging, never wavering in his belief that he and his fellow Americans are unequivocally the righteous good guys while anyone fighting against them is an evil savage. But when pressed, I think that nearly everyone, whether conservative or liberal, would agree that there are no heroes on the wrong side of history. And it has become nearly impossible to claim that George W. Bush's deceitful war of choice in Iraq was not a quest to free the Iraqi people, but was nothing less than a shameful, costly, unnecessary tragedy.

So what are we to make of American Sniper's Oscar nominations and its record-breaking success at the box office? Regarding the nominations, I think it points to how deep and bipartisan America's soldier worship goes, where even liberal Hollywood wants to celebrate a soldier who killed hundreds in service of a lie and a crime as long as he seems like a likable person. Second, it exemplifies America's obsession with guns, where I'm sure gun nuts couldn't watch American Sniper without creaming their pants and dreaming of the day when they'll be able to kill someone with moral and legal impunity as Kyle did, which is also one of the fantasies at the heart of "stand your ground" and "castle doctrine" laws.

And third, it shows how desperate many Americans, and especially conservatives, are to find any silver lining about the Iraq war. Even though a recent poll showed that more than half of all Republicans and nearly 40 percent of all Americans continue to believe the lie that the US found active WMDs in Iraq, it's becoming increasingly difficult for anyone to feel that the war was worth fighting and that it achieved any goals worth the money, effort, and lives it cost. For Americans who believe that the US is always right, noble, and unbeatable, accepting the harsh truth about our occupation of Iraq would shake them to their core.

But instead of an indictment of those who deceived us into invading Iraq and a soul-searching examination of why Americans supported the war for so long, we get the lionization of Chris Kyle, who is simply another color of lipstick applied to the stinking pig that is the Iraq war. Instead of dealing with the tragic reality of a war based on lies, we're supposed to celebrate a guy who either believed the lies, never cared about the truth, or convinced himself that all of the killing he did was simply the noble defense of the innocent instead of being a part of an illegal occupation that destroyed a country. In my lifetime, the US has never fought a war where America's safety or way of life was ever at risk, so let's dispense with the oft-used falsehood that I owe soldiers serving now for my ability to live my life and write this. Repeating a lie and believing it with all your heart doesn't make it true, and you don't get points for standing up for your beliefs if your beliefs are not only wrong, but destructive and counterproductive.

There's a feeling that, after the surprise of American Sniper's six Oscar nominations, a lot of Academy members are now taking a closer look at the film and the disturbing implications of honoring such a film and person, similar to what eventually happened with Zero Dark Thirty, which was a Best Picture frontrunner that faded late in its bid as its claims about the efficacy of torture and how it was integral to finding Osama bin Laden were debunked at the highest levels in a film whose main character, in a just world, would be convicted as a war criminal.

I see soldier worship as harmful because it so easily morphs into support for wars, no matter how unjust, by letting our affection for our fellow citizens in uniform and our desire to see them come home alive obscure the truth behind what they're supposedly fighting and dying for, which is rarely as black and white as we are told or wish it to be. But this is exactly what American Sniper does and what makes it such an empty, misleading, but apparently effective piece of jingoistic pro-war propaganda. There are no heroes on the wrong side of history, but you can trick people into thinking there are by lying about the history or claiming that history doesn't matter. By inferring that invading Iraq was the correct response to 9/11 and that the most important thing about the war was protecting American soldiers while ignoring the lies that put those soldiers in danger in the first place, Chris Kyle and the makers of American Sniper seem to have done both. And bullshit like that doesn't deserve awards.


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War in Two Directions

Robert Koehler   |   January 22, 2015    7:49 PM ET

"Sometimes they have drug and alcohol problems and when they feel that the VA is ignoring them, not answering the phone, failing to return calls for assistance or there are long wait times, they get more and more disgruntled. The VA is ripe for a mass killing but no one is listening to us."

The speaker is John Glidewell, former chief of police at the Cheyenne, Wyo., VA medical center, who was quoted in a Washington Post story a few days ago. As I read his words, I realized they sounded a far deeper note of desperation than the story was addressing, even though, my God, the events being reported on were the fodder of scandal.

The story was a follow-up about a murder that took place at another VA clinic, in El Paso, Texas, on Jan. 6. Jerry Serrato, an Iraq vet whose claim of PTSD, and the subsequent treatment and benefits, was denied, fatally shot the clinic's chief psychologist, Timothy Fjordbak, then killed himself.

Beyond the terrible details of the double killing and the fact that "there have been a string of shootings and violent incidents in VA medical centers across the country," the story managed to sound only a superficial warning, it seemed: about the lack of metal detectors and surveillance cameras at VA clinics, and, of course, the need for a larger, better trained staff to deal with all of America's distraught vets.

All of which leads me back to Glidewell's quote and its implicit linking of "disgruntled" and "mass killing" -- as though the transition from one to the other in American society is obvious and fully accepted by now and armed irritation, you might say, is simply the way things are.

Yes, by all means, the VA is failing American veterans terribly, with wholesale claim denials and scandalous waiting times and a general, contemptuous dismissal of the psychological and physical wounds American vets are coming home with -- that is, a rich man's investment in the waging of war, to the tune of many trillions of dollars, but a pauper's investment in its aftermath. Something else is going on here as well, however, that's deeper and darker and not limited to the failure of government programs.

In a column I wrote almost a decade ago, I reflected: "Bush's war to promote terror -- the perfect self-sustaining fear machine -- isn't just generating an endless supply of hardened enemies beyond our borders. It is also creating the conditions of social breakdown and psychological blowback within our borders. Guess what? Under Plan Bush, we'll never be safe."

This seems to be coming to pass. If a word like "disgruntled" -- which describes, at worst, an everyday sense of being mistreated or snubbed -- can flow seamlessly into "mass killing," then America is at a serious precipice. We're becoming a heavily armed, mentally ill society. And our primary institutions are either contributing directly to the situation or, at best, failing to notice it.

The obvious mega-contributor to our social breakdown is the unending War on Terror, of course. It's a war cynically waged in two directions: at the enemies beyond our borders that we've manufactured and the collateral-damage-in-waiting who live with them; and at the lower and middle classes (the 99 percent) here at home, who have the nerve to expect a reasonable share of the empire's wealth.

The War on Terror is our first prolonged post-Reagan war, waged in the context of social austerity. Sorry, vets. Sorry, poor people. There's almost no social safety net anymore, even to care for those who used up their physical, emotional and spiritual health participating in that war. There's only... more war, in the form of domestic surveillance, militarized police departments and the like. This is the making of a broken, Fourth World, emotionally disturbed society, which sees enemies everywhere and addresses all of its spiraling ills militarily.

Consider another recent, tragic news fragment: the death, this past Sunday afternoon, of Johnathan Guillory, a 32-year-old vet who served in both Iraq and (as a contract worker) Afghanistan. He was shot and killed by two police officers at his home outside Phoenix. He was married. He had two young sons.

Why he died isn't completely certain, but he was clearly caught in the jaws of America's war on itself. He suffered, or claimed to suffer, from PTSD. His wife told Phoenix TV station KTVK: "Sometimes he couldn't even deal with day-to-day life. It was a struggle for him to get through each morning, but he did."

He once sought emergency help from the VA but, "they turned him away," his wife said. "They told him there was no room, and that he'd have to make an appointment."

Neighbors said there were occasional disturbances at the couple's residence. On the afternoon in question, police went to the house in response to several 911 hang-up calls. Police say Guillory pointed a gun at them and they fired in self-protection. His wife denies he had a gun and said there had not been a disturbance. And this is where the story ends: in a she-said, they-said mystery. The news cycle moves on.

We don't know what really happened. All we know is that a vet and dad is dead (another one), and our militarized insecurity marches on.

- - -
Robert Koehler is an award-winning, Chicago-based journalist and nationally syndicated writer. His book, Courage Grows Strong at the Wound (Xenos Press), is still available. Contact him at koehlercw@gmail.com or visit his website at commonwonders.com.

© 2015 TRIBUNE CONTENT AGENCY, INC.

One Word Was Missing From Obama's State Of The Union Address: Guns

Sabrina Siddiqui   |   January 20, 2015    9:51 PM ET

WASHINGTON -- One word was noticeably missing from President Barack Obama's State of the Union address on Tuesday: guns.

In a sign that the sun has set on Obama's gun control agenda, the president's prepared remarks contained no mention of the issue. Two years after the shooting massacre at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, the absence of guns from Obama's speech marked a departure from previous years, in which the president urged Congress to pass legislation aimed at reducing gun violence in America.

Obama made a thinly veiled reference to mass shootings while discussing national tragedies that have brought Americans together.

"I’ve mourned with grieving families in Tucson and Newtown; in Boston, West, Texas, and West Virginia," he said.

Perhaps the most memorable moment of Obama's 2013 State of the Union address was his impassioned plea to lawmakers to at least hold a vote for the sake of the children at Sandy Hook and other victims of gun violence, such as former Rep. Gabby Giffords (D-Ariz.), who was shot in the head at a 2011 constituent meeting in Tucson. Obama's remarks on guns were significantly shorter last year, following a failed Senate vote to expand background checks. Nonetheless, the president pledged in that speech to take steps to curtail gun violence "with or without Congress."

Obama has continued to use other forums to push for a change in how America perceives the issue of gun control, while chastising lawmakers for bowing to the National Rifle Association and other special interest groups. He also took limited executive action last year to strengthen the federal background checks system. But his failure to even mention the word "guns" in his most high-profile speech of the year is an acknowledgement that gun control is currently dead at the federal level, particularly under a GOP-controlled Congress.

A December report found that nearly 100 school shootings have occurred since Sandy Hook, resulting in at least 45 deaths and 78 non-fatal gunshot injuries. The anti-gun violence coalition has refused to back down from its efforts to take on the gun lobby, but given the reluctance among congressional lawmakers to revisit stricter gun laws, gun control groups have shifted their focus. Advocates are increasingly pursuing progress outside of Washington, following some state-level victories on instituting background checks and preventing domestic abusers from purchasing firearms.

Sen. Richard Blumenthal, a Democrat from Connecticut who has been a leading advocate for stricter gun laws after Newtown, said Obama was being "realistic" about the prospects of gun control in the new Congress.

"This Congress unfortunately, tragically, unforgivably may well continue to do nothing," Blumenthal said in an interview with HuffPost Live after the speech. "And that's a missed opportunity to save lives of tens of thousands of people who will be victims of gun violence -- innocent children, people all across the country on campuses, in malls and individually on the streets of our cities."

"Gun violence affects everyone and Congress is aiding and abetting by failing to take stronger action," he added. "I think the president had a broader vision and he was reaching for a vision of expanding economic opportunity and investing in America rather than dwelling on any single issue."

This story has been updated.

Follow more of HuffPost's State of the Union coverage below:

Tracy Connor   |   January 20, 2015    4:47 PM ET

She had just put her 9-month-old down for a nap, turned on cartoons for the older kids and was headed for the dishwasher when she heard a strange "pop" come from the bedroom of the Missouri home.

Alexis Wiederholt, 26, said that as she rushed to investigate the noise, her 5-year-old son appeared and said something that didn't make any sense to her in the moment.

"I'm sorry, Mom. I shot Corbin."

  |   January 20, 2015    9:29 AM ET

A 9-month-old northwestern Missouri boy is dead after his 5-year-old brother playing with a handgun accidentally shot him in the head.

Nodaway County Sheriff Darren White says the baby was pronounced dead at Children's Mercy Hospital in Kansas City just before noon on Monday.

The Kansas City Star ( http://bit.ly/1zsiSLP ) reports that emergency responders were called to a home in Elmo around 9 a.m. Monday after a 5-year-old found a loaded .22 caliber handgun and apparently was handling it when it fired.

White says the bullet struck the 9-month-old, who was in a playpen.

The sheriff says there is no reason to believe the shooting was anything other than an accident.

Elmo is located 120 miles north of Kansas City, Missouri.

The Gun Violence Stats the NRA Doesn't Want You to Consider

Mike Weisser   |   January 20, 2015    8:59 AM ET

When I was a kid growing up in New York City I kept my eyes on a neighborhood gang whose older members, when it came to violence and lawlessness, put the feared Westies of Hell's Kitchen to shame. In fact, the Westies contracted out their hits to this bunch, whose SOP was to haul the victim up to the roof of one of the neighborhood housing projects and that was that. Five guys went up to the roof, four guys walked back down.

As tough and brutal as they were, the members of this crew never carried guns. Why not? Because whenever anything went down in the neighborhood, the cops would come around, line them up against the wall, administer the Miranda warning by kicking them in the ass or punching them in the face, and then pat them all down for guns. If the cops found a gun, that guy was slammed into the back of the patrol car and wasn't seen for a long time. Don't think for one second that aggressive, in-your-face street patrols used by Giuliani and Bloomberg to drive down gun crime in New York City is such a new idea.

The NRA and the gun industry wants us to take a giant leap of faith by going along with their idea that the most effective way to curb gun violence is to cut down on crime. But the data on gun violence published by the FBI doesn't support this, not at all. Of course there are criminals out there who use guns to commit crimes. Of course we need to do everything possible to keep guns out of the wrong hands. But the connection of guns to gun violence is more complicated than just the simple idea that more guns in the "wrong hands" equals more crime.

According to the FBI, from 2000 to 2012 there were slightly more than 200,000 homicide victims of which slightly more than two-thirds were killed with guns. This is an average of 10,400 gun homicides each year, a remarkably-stable number over the past thirteen years. Of these gun killings, slightly more than 15 percent involved women as victims, or roughly 21,000 over the same span of years. When women are homicide victims, most if not virtually all of these shootings grew out of some sort of IPV. Let's not forget, incidentally, that men were also shot to death by their girlfriends or their wives an average of 700 times per year. Taken together, domestic violence probably claimed more than 2,200 victims annually between 2000 and 2012, or one-fifth of all gun fatalities during those years.

The degree to which homicide grows out of personal disputes is shown by the fact that of the total murders committed in 2012, only slightly more than 20 percent took place during the commission of other crimes. The rest happened because people who knew each other, and in most cases knew each other on a long-term, continuous basis, got into an argument about money, or who dissed who, or who was sleeping with someone else, or some other dumb thing. And many times they were drunk or high on drugs, but no matter what, like Walter Mosley says, "sooner or later" the gun goes off.

Here's the bottom line on gun violence and crime. Every year 20,000+ shoot themselves intentionally, which is suicide. Another thousand, give or take a hundred, kill themselves accidentally with a gun. Then another 10,000 use a gun to kill someone else, but 8,000 of those shootings had nothing to do with other violent crimes. If we define gun violence as using a gun to end a human life, the FBI is telling us that less than 10 percent of those fatalities would be eliminated if we got rid of all violent crime. The NRA can try to convince its members that the reason for gun violence is that there's too much crime, but the data from the FBI clearly indicates that the reason for gun violence is that there are too many guns.

First-Time Novelist Tackles Guns and Corruption

Tamar Abrams   |   January 13, 2015    3:31 PM ET

The novel A Spy Came Home by H.N. Wake is a typical thriller, loaded with suspense, some violence, taut pacing. But it is unique in many ways: Written by a former government worker, H.N. Wake is a pseudonym. The main character - the spy who comes home - is a strong single woman. And the antagonist is a fictional pro-guns membership organization that is more than vaguely reminiscent of the NRA.

In a phone interview, it becomes clear that the author is a married forty-something woman, a former aid worker, who chose the pseudonym to protect herself from harassment by NRA members and to honor Nancy Wake, a famous WW II spy. "This is a work of fiction," she asserts. "It is not based on the NRA. But I wanted to write about a hot button political issue and news about gun violence comes out on a weekly basis. Enough is enough. So I looked at those who lobby for gun manufacturers and wondered how they might come to be corrupted."

Once she had her hot button issue, Wake asked herself, "How can I make the book easy to read? How would a CIA agent bring down a fictitious massive and bloated organization?" She spent an entire year writing the novel in her spare time. And, while she had experience writing nonfiction and screenplays, this was her first finished novel. She admits that she wrote hundreds of drafts, spending five or six days a week doggedly writing and revising. And because it takes on the issue of gun ownership and manufacturing, she sent drafts to former NRA members. "I'm not an expert on guns," she says, "and I wanted to know what gun-owners thought. They said they were fine with it."

Wake is not rabidly anti-guns, she says, "I am not against responsible gun ownership but extremists have taken over the conversation. I wanted to change that." But mostly, she asserts, "I want readers to say this is a good story. It would also be good if they are more informed about gun violence in America." Wake chose to self-publish the book, explaining, "Traditional publishing would delay publication by as much as a year and it's such a hot topic that I wanted to get it into circulation as quickly as possible."

She believes that it is the feminist angle that makes the book more unique than the subject matter. "I knew there are not a lot of women writers in the thriller genre," she says. "I had to really find my confidence and voice, and I'd like to see more women represented in this male-dominated space." A Spy Came Home is the first in a trilogy about the main character, and Wake is already at work on the second in the series - a book whose subject matter is equally as controversial as guns.

But don't expect to see H.N. Wake doing on-camera interviews any time soon. "It's not out of fear that I want to stay in the background," she says. "It's that I want the issue to be at the forefront."

Morgan Smith   |   January 13, 2015    3:06 PM ET

As Texas lawmakers convened for the first day of the 2015 legislative session Tuesday, about a dozen activists carrying a variety of firearms gathered in front of the state Capitol to protest gun laws.

Members of Come and Take It Texas — a group that organizes armed rallies to protest gun laws and one of several pushing to scrap the state's handgun licensing requirements this session — also demonstrated how to make a weapon with a machine known as the Ghost Gunner.

The event was held in support of a bill filed by state Rep. Jonathan Stickland, R-Bedford, that would lift the state's handgun licensing requirements, which critics say impose unconstitutional costs and restrictions.

"People would be up in arms if we had to pay a fee in order to have freedom of speech," said Pablo Frias, who said he traveled from Arlington to participate in the rally and was carrying an AR-15 for self-defense "but also for educational purposes."

Another rally participant, Tammy Koontz of Lewisville, wore the T-shirt of a national gun safety group along with a holstered black powder pistol.

Koontz said she was collecting the signatures of gun rights advocates on the Moms Demand Action For Gun Sense in America shirt in protest of that group's support of tightening gun restrictions.

"They seem to think they speak for all moms and they don't ... I'm for open carry because I have children," she said, adding that she planned to wear the shirt on the day open carry became legal in the state.

Texas, which allows the public display of long guns like rifles and shotguns, legalized the carrying of concealed handguns with a license in 1995. It is one of six states that specifically prohibit the unconcealed display of handguns, according to the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence.

Gov.-elect Greg Abbott has said he would sign an open carry bill if it reached his desk — and on Tuesday, rally participants displayed a copy of Stickland's bill with Abbott's signature as a gesture of support. 

The measure is among several already filed this session targeting handgun restrictions, but it is the only one so far that proposes lifting licensing requirements altogether. Efforts to allow handgun license holders to openly carry their firearms have failed during the last two sessions, and it is unclear whether lawmakers have the votes to pass legislation that would repeal licensing requirements outright.

divide exists even among gun rights supporters over the use of armed rallies to raise awareness for their cause. Some view the tactic — which features protesters carrying weapons such as assault rifles in city streets — as overly aggressive. The manufacturing of firearms at the Come and Take It rally has also drawn criticism from within the ranks of Second Amendment supporters.

At a second rally planned for later in the month by Open Carry Texas, participants will be carrying empty holsters instead of firearms. The group's founder, CJ Grisham, told the Texas Tribune last week that he had reached out to the Jan. 13 event's organizers to ask them not to use the Ghost Gunner at the Capitol.

"I don’t understand the purpose of it," Grisham said. "It seems confrontational, and really, needless. I mean, it’s the first day of the Legislature, we are this close to getting open carry passed, and now these guys want to come and manufacture a firearm on the steps of the Capitol? I just don’t get it."

At the Tuesday rally, Chuck Richter of Athens said he used the Chinese SKS rifle he was carrying for hunting, particularly hogs, because it was easy to carry. He said that understood why people might not be comfortable seeing firearms in public but part of the event's purpose was to demonstrate that they did not have anything to fear. 

"It's less about intimidation than re-sensitizing people to something that should be customary," he said. "This is not North Korea where only the state gets to carry protection."

This article originally appeared in The Texas Tribune at http://www.texastribune.org/2015/01/13/gun-advocates-take-and-make-arms-texas-capitol/.

Understanding the Misunderstanding; The Use of Weapons in Filming Carries With it Inherent Danger

Joe Wallenstein   |   January 13, 2015    1:42 PM ET

After 30 years as an Assistant Director, Production Manager and Producer, I was invited to become Director of Physical Production at the University of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts.

One would think that in jaded, old Hollywood, home to a thousand movie productions, people would be able to differentiate between real life and make-believe, in filming.

But guess what?

"People" would be wrong.

A beginning class was filming a mugging in an alley near school. One man held another man at gunpoint. The gun was rubber with no moving parts. There were a dozen students present. There was a camera on a tripod, dolly track, lights and a truck filled with electrical equipment. But a little old lady walking by failed to make the nexus between the cinematic accouterments and the fact that it was only a movie. She called the police and reported a hold up at gunpoint in an alley.

The police came running. And believe or not, when the LAPD gets a call about a gun and a mugging in an alley, they don't automatically say to themselves': "Oh, gosh, must be film students." They take it seriously. That is why we tell our students, "if the police roll up while you are filming, the actor must immediately DROP THE WEAPON."

Many people believe they can wave a weapon at the police while they explain it's only a make-believe gun. Most police will tell you: "We don't see you... we only see the weapon."

On another occasion, I was sitting in my office on a Saturday when the phone rang and a man's voice blurted: "You almost got my son killed. What-the-hell are you doing down there?"

You can believe that's the kind of dialogue that gets my undivided attention. Some of our students had been filming in a Seven-Eleven store in South Central Los Angeles in the middle of the night. The scene called for a young man attempting to rob the store by pretending to have a gun. In fact, he had no gun. What he did have was a ski mask. The student director told him specifically to place the mask on the top of his head but not to lower over his face until he was inside the store.

The student waited patiently outside for his cue to enter. The director yelled: "Action" and the young actor lowered the mask and stepped into the store. At that precise moment, a Good Samaritan, driving by, saw someone in a ski mask entering a Seven-Eleven and dialed 911. The cops responded quickly. We actually had on film two guys, the size of Delaware, holding shotguns, look right into camera and say: "if we had seen you enter the store, we would have shot you."

The students, thinking they were being diligent, had written a hand-drawn note on a piece of white paper and stuck it in the corner of one of the store windows. Naturally, the police never saw it. That event gave rise to our PRO WEAPONS IN USE signs that every USC student carries to location and places at any point of entry to the set.

We have even gone so far as to insist that students filming on our stages place those sign outside the stage doors.

Always err on the side of caution.

15 Things That Need to End in 2015

John Willey   |   January 8, 2015    3:23 PM ET

It's amazing how much changes when the calendar flips from December 31 to January 1. Everything is fresh and new and we can all start over with our lives. No more do we have to think about how horrible the past year was and we can all look forward to the exciting things that lie ahead. Or something like that. The truth is the new year really doesn't mean that much. Sure, it's a good time to reflect and think about what you want to change going forward, but in actuality not much really does. Everyone goes to the gym for a couple of weeks, they lose a few pounds, then they fall of the wagon, stop going to the gym and gain it all right back.

It seems everything is like that though. We all talk about how much we want to change in the new year, but things usually end up pretty much the same as in years past. But there are some things that HAVE to change in the new year.

1. People talking on their cell phones in public. Don't do it in the line at Starbucks. Don't do it in line at the bank. DO NOT DO IT ANYWHERE. I can't tell you how many times I've seen someone chatting away on their phones as they are checking out their groceries or ordering a cup of coffee. Please give that person standing in front of you your full undivided attention. It's beyond rude. With that said...

2. People who talk on SPEAKERPHONE. Seriously?! I don't want to hear both ends of your conversation. It's bad enough that I have to hear what you are saying and now you want me to hear what your Aunt Shelia is saying, too? Next time I see you, I hope it's at Home Depot so I can smash your phone with a hammer.

3. People who autopost from Twitter to Facebook. There is no reason. They are two different social platforms; treat them as such. Never should an @ be found on Facebook.

4. Chewing gum in public. It's disgusting. Have you ever driven past a cow pasture and seen all the cows just sitting there, chewing? That's what you all look like.

5. Arguing politics online. Has there ever been a political argument online where one side realized the error in their ways and completely flipped their opinion? The next time it happens will be the first. Everyone has an opinion and everyone is wrong.

6. People not getting vaccinated. It's stupid. I just got my dog shots so that she wouldn't die of distemper. Why wouldn't you get a shot to prevent your kids from dying of a potentially fatal disease?

7. Racism. I know that this is impossible. As long as two people don't look like each other, there will always be hatred and misunderstanding. It makes no sense to me, though. Look at a group of kids playing with each other. None of them cares about what the other person looks like, they just want to play. Why can't adults be like that? So stop teaching your kids to hate each other.

8. Gun violence. I don't want to take away your right to have a gun; far from it. If you want to carry one, that's fine. I just want to make sure that you are doing it in the safest way possible and that a person who shouldn't own a gun doesn't. There is no need for you to walk into an Arby's with an AK-47. I will never understand why people say that the only way to stop a bad guy with a gun is a good guy with a gun. It seems we hear too often about the bad guys and not enough about the good guys. More guns is NOT the answer and instead of not talking about things and sitting behind the Second Amendment, lets have a human discussion.

9. Cops shooting unarmed people. I've heard too many stories like this. I know that being a cop is not the easiest job in the world and that their next shift could possibly be their last, but we hear about these types of stories far too often. I don't know how cops are trained to handle certain situations, but pulling up to a 12-year-old in the park and killing him in two seconds is not the way to go.

10. People shooting the police. Stop it. It does nothing to further your cause. The only thing that it does is make things exponentially worse for everyone.

11. Poverty/War/Name your unattainable goal. We can try, but this is never going to happen. Seven billion people living on a rock in space where two thirds of it is covered by water? There are just too many people and too many of them want to be in charge.

12.  Talking about stay-at-home-dads as if working moms don't exist.  I'm a stay-at-home-dad for no other reason than my wife is a freaking rock star. Sure, there seems to be more of us SAHDs every year, but that would also mean that there are more households with the working mom as the sole breadwinner. Let's hear some stories about them and their struggles for a change.

13. My dog pooping on the floor. It might not rank up there with some of the others on this list, but it's something that really needs to stop. She knows where the door is, she knows how to let me know she has to go, she needs to stop dropping a deuce on the dining room floor. Newborn puppies are harder than newborn babies.

Help me out puppy
14. Group texts. Please don't include me in one.  I barely care about your original text and I am certainly not going to care about seven one word responses from people I don't know.  The only way to truly put an and to this is for people to stop hitting "Reply All."  You have that option, use it.

15.  List posts.  They are lazy ways to write things and they are oversaturated in our society now.  I get it that people will invest their time though when they know they only have to read 15 things.

This post originally appeared on Daddy's in Charge

You can follow John on Twitter @daddysincharge

Ending Gun Violence Complacency

Rep. Raúl M. Grijalva   |   January 8, 2015    1:11 PM ET

Today marks four years since my friend and colleague Gabby Giffords, and 18 other people, were shot in a senseless act of violence that claimed six innocent lives. The somber occasion comes just weeks after NYPD officers Wenjian Liu and Rafael Ramos were assassinated in cold blood while on patrol in Brooklyn. Both men left their families that morning to serve and protect the people of New York, not knowing they would never return. My heart breaks for both men, for their loved ones whose lives have a void that can never be filled, and over what it means for our society that incidents of gun violence -- often times completely preventable -- continue to extinguish lives and shatter families.

Officers Liu and Ramos were public servants, and they deserve to be honored for the communities they kept safe, and for the sacrifices they made. But we owe them more than memorials; we owe them our sincere efforts to make sure the senseless violence that claimed their lives won't claim others. We owe their wives and children, suffering through unimaginable grief, the assurance that their pain won't needlessly be felt by others, too.

Sadly, those who call for action to prevent gun violence are often times accused of exploiting a tragedy. It has somehow become acceptable to many of my colleagues to simply express condolences and repeat tired excuses for inaction like "we can't legislate away crazy," or "guns don't kill people, people do." Meanwhile, their intransigence allows the violence to continue as the roots of this problem are ignored.

The fact is you don't need to "legislate away" crazy if you ensure that those who shouldn't have guns can't get them in the first place. Gun violence is a societal problem threatening every American, and politicians are elected to solve society's problems. Victims and their families deserve better from elected officials than hollow condolences. The American people should expect more from their leaders than excuses on why they refuse to lead.

The families of Officers Liu and Ramos -- and all families impacted by gun violence -- have my sympathies and my condolences. But just as important, they have my word that I will fight to curb gun violence. As the 114th Congress convenes, I urge my colleagues to do right by those who sent them here, and address this problem facing every one of their constituents. There is no excuse for us not to pass universal background checks and to close gun show loopholes. We should invest more in mental health programs, and make sure that instruments of war like high capacity magazines aren't used on our streets. These are common sense steps that will save lives, and ensure that we honor the memories of those who have fallen. Congress should pass them right away.

A Personal Memory of Former Governor Mario Cuomo

Angela Vitaliano   |   January 2, 2015   10:56 AM ET

When last April, in Oklahoma, Clayton Darrell Lockett died of a heart attack after a failed execution by lethal injection, going through the atrocity of 43 minutes of pain, I thought of interviewing former Governor of New York, Mario Cuomo, a champion in the fight against the inhumanity of the death penalty.

I did not have high hopes that Mr. Cuomo was going to concede the interview; lately he was living pretty much out of the limelight and I am not a "big" name that he could have known or appreciated anyway before. But I always give a chance to miracles to happen, so I sent him an email with my request. For two days I didn't get any reply so I thought, "Ok, no miracle this time."

The third day, it was during the morning, I was sitting at my desk, when my phone rang.

"Hello," I said.

"Good morning, Angela Vitaliano?" asked a voice.

I had no clue who was on the phone and I was totally distracted by the fact that, for once, my complicated last name had been pronounced correctly.

"Yes, speaking, who is there?" I said with some impatience in my voice, looking at the screen of my computer, where a sentence was waiting to be completed.

"I am Mario Cuomo," he said.

For a few seconds, my mind was crossed by an array of thoughts: from "Damn, I don't have any questions ready" to "give me a pen!!!", while at the same time, many other silly voices in my head were screaming that I was going to fail the interview because I was not ready.

"Good morning Mr. Governor," I replied after a very short moment that felt as long as a lifetime. After that, our conversation was easy and amazingly interesting.

Mostly I listened to him: his words on the death penalty were enlightening and touching together. The severe tone of his voice doubled my respect for him, but didn't make me uncomfortable or worried for my accent or any possible mistakes. And I felt some emotion in his voice when he told me an episode of his youth that involved his mother:

"I was a little kid and it was Christmas time. I was with my mom in Jamaica, Queens, and she told me that I could pick a toy, but only one. I looked around the store and I came back to her with a toy gun in my hand. She saw it and immediately slapped my hand and said "don't hold a gun anymore in your life unless you are a cop. Weapons kills people." That was the moment when I realized how precious the life of a human being is and how much respect we always have to show for it."

Mr. Cuomo didn't hesitate to admit that he felt ashamed because his own country was still using death penalty, but added that he was confident in a different outcome for the future.

"Sometimes people ask me "but what if someone would hurt Matilda or your kids?" and I reply, every time, that of course I would feel anger and a need to get "justice" but this is why we are a country of law and the law is good because is not about personal feeling or rage, but about fairness and humanity and civilization".

Our conversation led to the writing of one of the articles that I am most proud of, and that was published on May 15, 2014 for espresso.repubblica.it.

When I heard that Mr. Cuomo passed away, some details of our conversation came back to me and perhaps, if you aren't familiar with the "attitude" of Italian politicians, you won't understand how powerful these details were for me. Mr. Cuomo called me in person, no one announced him; he never, during our conversation, used the "paisano" card to make our conversation more confidential -- being an American from Italian origins doesn't mean that you are any less a leader of "your" country and that you keep your institutional attitude when needed. He didn't use any title to introduce himself and at the end of our conversation he said "thank you".

We lost a great man, a giant in the history of the city, of the State and of the country, the country he loved and wanted to make better, fighting one of its most horrible practices: death penalty. And, as an Italian in New York, I feel we lost one of those "Italians" who make me very proud.

May you rest in peace Mr. Cuomo and my condolences to the governor Andrew Cuomo and the whole Cuomo's family.

  |   December 30, 2014    9:14 PM ET

UPPER DARBY, Pa. (AP) — A man who had posted an online video threatening to kill police and FBI agents tried to use his car to run down officers seeking to arrest him on Tuesday so, fearing for their lives, they shot and killed him, authorities said.

Police did not immediately identify the man, who was killed in Upper Darby, in suburban Philadelphia, as officers ordered him out of the car and he appeared ready to accelerate at them as they manned a blockade.

Police Superintendent Michael Chitwood said the officers feared the man would kill them and they "did what they had to do." He said five officers fired at the man and no officers were injured.

Police had secured an arrest warrant for the man after he threatened to kill police and FBI agents in the online video, Chitwood said. The man's death comes a little more than a week after a man who made similar threats shot two New York Police Department officers dead in their patrol car and then killed himself in a subway station.

Police said they began following the man after he left a home in nearby Clifton Heights. They said when officers stopped him at an intersection and ordered him out of the car, he reversed and slammed into a police vehicle and then prepared to run over other officers.

Officers opened fire, killing the man, Chitwood said. The man did not fire at police, and Chitwood said he did not know if the man had a weapon.

In the New York case, Officers Rafael Ramos and Wenjian Liu were ambushed on a Brooklyn street as they sat in their marked car on Dec. 20. Their attacker, Ismaaiyl Brinsley, had referenced in online posts the high-profile killings by white police officers of unarmed black men, specifically Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, and Eric Garner on Staten Island. Soon after the officers' shooting Brinsley, who was black, killed himself.

Decisions by grand juries not to indict the officers involved in the killings of Brown and Garner have sparked protests around the nation, with demonstrators lying down in the streets as though they're dead. Many protesters have chanted "Hands up! Don't shoot!" a reference to their contention Brown's hands were raised when he was shot dead by police, and "I can't breathe," which Garner was heard saying on a video recording of his encounter with a policeman who put his arm around his neck.

On Sunday night, two men opened fire on a police car patrolling a tough part of Los Angeles, but the two officers inside were not injured and one was able to shoot back, authorities said. One suspect was later arrested, and the other was on the loose. Police haven't determined a motive for the shooting in South Los Angeles, an area plagued by gang violence, but said there were no indications it was linked to other attacks on police.