While the U.S. and Japan have no aggressive designs on China, Beijing understandably looks uneasily at the alliance of its old enemy with the globe's dominant power. Thus, China is developing a military capable of confronting American as well as Japanese military action, no easy task.
On April 23, 1949, during the Chinese Civil War, Mao's People's Liberation Army (PLA) captured the city of Nanking, now known as Nanjing, then capital of China and headquarters of the Nationalist Party (also known as the Kuomintang or KMT).
It was the first time since the creation of the People's Republic of China in 1949 that the two sides held such high-level official dialogue, and they agreed to establish a permanent communication channel.
Sirens sound around this Chinese city as the last few eyewitnesses of a massacre gather. Starting Dec. 13, 1937, and lasting six weeks, as many as 300,000 civilians were murdered during the atrocities.
For most of the 20th century, China viewed itself as a victim of foreign bullying and Chinese leaders drew on the emotion of resentment in order to strengthen the state. But there are two forms of nationalism in China.
The destruction in China is so staggering, it's hard to comprehend. Sixteen of the world's 20 most polluted cities are in China, and many regions can now lay claim to the most polluted air in the world.