RELIGION

Hajj 2014, Islam's Pilgrimage To Mecca: Facts, History And Dates Of The Muslim Holiday

What is Hajj?
The annual Hajj pilgrimage is one of the world's largest gatherings, as hundreds of thousands of people flock to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, to participate in one of Islam's five pillars of faith. Muslims from all over the world will gather together for five days to pray as one community, celebrating their history and giving thanks for blessings. From the Masjid Al Haram complex to the hills of Mina, the rites include circling the Kaaba seven times and visiting sites of historical and religious importance.

When is Hajj 2014?
This year's hajj is expected to fall on October 1-6, though that date depends on the sighting of the moon, as Islam follows a lunar calendar. Hajj takes place annually on the eighth day of the month of Dhul Al-Hijjah in the Muslim calendar. It's considered an obligation for devout Muslims to undertake the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime, if they are physically and financially able.

What's the history of Hajj?
The pilgrimage to Mecca has been going on since pre-Islamic times, as Mecca's economic prosperity during the time of the Prophet Muhammad was largely due to the income from visitors.

Muslims believe that the steps of the Hajj correlate to the story of Hagar, the second wife of Abraham whom he married after Sarah was childless. After Abraham left her and her infant son, Ishmael, in the desert, she frantically ran between the hills of Safa and Marwa to look for food and water for her baby after their provisions ran out. As she prayed to God for mercy, Ishmael's heel hit the ground and the well of Zam Zam sprang forth to nourish them. When Abraham returned, he built the Kaaba with Ishmael's help.

First, pilgrims go to Miqat, the entry station to the Hajj, where they bathe, put on special clothing, and make a formal statement of intent. Next they enter the Masjid al Haram complex to do Tawaf, a rite which involves circling the Kaaba seven times while reciting prayers. After this takes place, it's encouraged to sip water from the Zam Zam well, then walk between the hills of Safa and Marwa seven times.

Next, the formal Hajj ritual begins with another declaration of intent. Pilgrims then travel to Mina on the 8th of Dhul al Hijjah and stay there until dawn prayer the next morning. Following the prayer, the faithful travel to the valley of Arafat to stand in the heat and praise God. The day concludes with travel to Muzdalifa and the gathering of small pebbles. A symbolic stoning of the devil occurs at Mina the next day, along with the animal sacrifice which is part of Eid al Adha. Male pilgrims will shave their heads after this occurs. Next, pilgrims return to Mecca to do the Tawaf again, along with the crossing between Safa and Marwa 7 times. Another trip to Mina then takes place, along with more symbolic stoning, before the faithful can return to Mecca to do a farewell Tawaf.

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What are other rituals associated with Hajj?
Pilgrims perform the Hajj in a state of ritual purity called ihram, which for men is physically represented by wearing simple garments made of unsewn cloth. It demonstrates the equality of humanity before God.

How many people go on Hajj?
In 2012, Al Arabiya reports that 3,161,573 went on Hajj, with 1,700,000 of them coming from outside of Saudi Arabia.

What is Eid al-Adha?
The Eid of the sacrifice takes place on the 10th day of Dhul Al-Hijjah, beginning in 2014 on the evening of October 4, which commemorates Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael in order to be totally obedient to God. Muslims sacrifice a goat or lamb in remembrance of this act of faith and give part of the meat to the poor.

Take a look at how Mecca has transformed over the last century:

  • <strong>Pilgrims in 1920 at the Kaaba, Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the most sacred site in the Islamic religion.</strong>
    Culture Club via Getty Images
    Pilgrims in 1920 at the Kaaba, Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the most sacred site in the Islamic religion.
  • <strong>Mecca's great mosque, Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 1922. </strong>
    Getty Images
    Mecca's great mosque, Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 1922.
  • <strong>Circa 1935: Aerial view of the Mecca with the porticoes which surround the Ka'bah.</strong>
    Getty Images
    Circa 1935: Aerial view of the Mecca with the porticoes which surround the Ka'bah.
  • <strong>The Kaaba in the centre of the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, March 21, 1967. </strong>
    Getty Images
    The Kaaba in the centre of the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, March 21, 1967.
  • <strong>The Kaaba in the centre of the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, circa 1979.</strong>
    Keystone via Getty Images
    The Kaaba in the centre of the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, circa 1979.
  • <strong>A picture dated May 1988 shows Muslim pilgrims during the Hajj in Mecca.</strong>
    STR via Getty Images
    A picture dated May 1988 shows Muslim pilgrims during the Hajj in Mecca.
  • <strong> Aerial view of the holy Kaaba in the holy city of Mecca March 17, 2000.</strong>
    MARWAN NAAMANI via Getty Images
    Aerial view of the holy Kaaba in the holy city of Mecca March 17, 2000.
  • <strong>Hundreds of thousands of Muslim pilgrims throng Mecca's Grand Mosque, Islam's holiest shrine, late on Dec. 11, 2001,
    MAHMOUD MAHMOUD/AFP/Getty Images
    Hundreds of thousands of Muslim pilgrims throng Mecca's Grand Mosque, Islam's holiest shrine, late on Dec. 11, 2001, to mark the 27th night of the holy fasting month of Ramadan, known as Lailat al-Qadr.
  • <strong>Muslims pray on Jan. 23, 2004, at the Grand Mosque in the holy city of Mecca ahead of the hajj, which begins on Jan.
    AWAD AWAD via Getty Images
    Muslims pray on Jan. 23, 2004, at the Grand Mosque in the holy city of Mecca ahead of the hajj, which begins on Jan. 30.
  • <strong>Muslim pilgrims pray around the holist Al-Ka'aba mosque Jan. 14, 2005, in Mecca.</strong>
    Abid Katib via Getty Images
    Muslim pilgrims pray around the holist Al-Ka'aba mosque Jan. 14, 2005, in Mecca.
  • <strong>An aerial view shows the Grand Mosque, Islam's holiest site, amid booming construction in the Saudi city of Mecca on
    KHALED DESOUKI via Getty Images
    An aerial view shows the Grand Mosque, Islam's holiest site, amid booming construction in the Saudi city of Mecca on Dec. 9, 2008.
  • <strong>A picture shows the Mecca Royal Clock Tower hotel complex, under construction in the holy Saudi city of Mecca on Apri
    Getty Images
    A picture shows the Mecca Royal Clock Tower hotel complex, under construction in the holy Saudi city of Mecca on April 13, 2010.
  • <strong>An aerial view shows Muslim pilgrims walking around the Kaaba in the Grand Mosque of the holy city of Mecca on Aug. 6
    Amer Hilabi / AFP / Getty Images
    An aerial view shows Muslim pilgrims walking around the Kaaba in the Grand Mosque of the holy city of Mecca on Aug. 6, 2012.
  • <strong>The tallest clock tower in the world with the world's largest clock face at the Abraj Al-Bait Towers overlooks the Gr
    ASSOCIATED PRESS
    The tallest clock tower in the world with the world's largest clock face at the Abraj Al-Bait Towers overlooks the Grand Mosque and its expansion in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, Wednesday, Oct. 16, 2013.
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