01/08/2013 10:00 am ET Updated Mar 10, 2013

The Arab Summer

By Ian Bremmer and David Gordon

The furious protests that have toppled autocrats and roiled politics
across North Africa and the Middle East for the past two years will
enter a new phase in 2013. Arab Spring will give way to Arab Summer,
as the region faces a series of increasingly complicated overlapping
conflicts that generate plenty of heat. As domestically focused U.S. and
European governments resist deeper direct engagement in the region's
turmoil, ructions and rivalries among Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Turkey,
competition for influence between Sunni and Shia, a lack of economic
progress, and a resurgence of militant groups will each heighten

Syria will remain at the heart of this trend. The country's civil war
has extended beyond a battle over Bashar al Assad and his government's
right to rule to become a proxy conflict for Shia powers -- Iran and
Lebanese Hizbullah -- on the one side, and Sunni states -- Turkey, Saudi
Arabia and Qatar -- on the other. In the process, the country has become
a magnet for jihadists, and the instability created by all these
fights is spilling across borders into Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and

Emerging conflicts elsewhere are less obvious. Egypt, Tunisia, and
Morocco now have moderate Islamist governments. In Jordan and Kuwait,
Islamist opposition groups threaten the governing dominance of secular
administrations. But while the words and actions of mainstream parties
like Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood and Tunisia's Ennahda make headlines
in the West, the more serious risk comes from far more extreme
organizations, often at the fringes of society, that threaten the
ability of new leaders to govern and to keep the peace.

Fueling this trend is the reality that, across the region, new leaders
are trying to consolidate political power and build popularity at a
time when complex, structural economic problems demand solutions that
are sure to make large numbers of people angry. New governments in
Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Yemen will only prove durable if they can
deliver tangible economic progress for an increasingly frustrated and
impatient public.

The risk that a Salafist or jihadist group can exploit these
frustrations to seize power in 2013 is very low, but groups like Al
Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, Al
Shabab, and smaller affiliates continue to attract support and new
followers by using resentments against local regimes to foster anger
at America and the West.

The biggest immediate worry, however, is the substantial challenges
these groups pose for stability and investor sentiment in countries at
the heart of the region's upheaval. Take Egypt. The Salafist Nour
party won close to 15 percent of votes in 2012 legislative elections, and
protests against U.S. interests orchestrated by minority Salafists in
Cairo -- like the angry demonstration outside the U.S. Embassy that
followed the controversy over a low-budget anti-Muslim American film
last September -- demonstrate how quickly a small determined mob with an
incendiary message can ignite an international media firestorm. That's
bad news for Washington -- but worse news for an Egypt trying to restore
its reputation as a regional powerbroker and tourist destination.

In Lebanon, a Salafist minority, emboldened by the success of their
peers in Syria, is generating friction within the country's Sunni Arab
political mainstream and threatening the stability of the country's
economy and its banking sector, which depends heavily on moderate
Sunni management and expatriate investors rolling over Lebanon's
otherwise unsustainable debt.

In Yemen, reconstruction of the country's military will take time,
providing Al Qaeda a potential security vacuum to exploit. In
December, militants killed 17 Yemeni soldiers in a single strike, and
the government has failed to stop multiple sabotage attacks on the
country's oil pipelines and electricity towers, inflicting hundreds of
millions of dollars in damage on an already struggling economy.

But Iraq may become 2013's newest Middle East hotspot. In a region
where Sunni-Shia tensions are growing, a unified and stable Iraq will
become less likely, and none of Syria's neighbors is more vulnerable
to the threats created inside that country by radical Wahhabi clerics,
often with Saudi or Qatari support, who are fueling the emergence of
an increasingly radicalized and militarily experienced Salafist

At the same time, the Kurdish regional government in Iraq is becoming
more aggressive in promoting its energy development agenda at
Baghdad's expense and will try to take political advantage of any
spillover of unrest from Syria. Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki
has worked to preserve an increasingly delicate balance in relations
with the United States, Sunni powers, and Iran, but Sunni-led violence
inside the country might well encourage Iraq's Shia-led government to
forge closer ties with Tehran, antagonizing the governments of Saudi
Arabia and Turkey.

The Obama administration wants to focus on domestic challenges and an
ongoing foreign policy shift toward Asia. But it will be hard not to
notice that the Arab Spring is over. Regional rivalries are heating
up, and Americans and Europeans will only add to the uncertainty by
keeping their distance -- in hopes that they don't get burned.