The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is just days away from the release of its first-ever proposed rule regulating greenhouse gas emissions from existing power plants. The rule will push states to cut pollution primarily from coal-fired generators. As many await details of the rule, The New York Times reports that sources familiar with proposal suggest that it will call for a 20 percent reduction.
One new study by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce was skeptical of the regulation, slated for release on June 2, finding that they would cost the economy $51 billion a year in lost investments. The Chamber further suggests that the rule could diminish coal-fired generation, which currently represents 40 percent of electricity generation in the country, by one third.
In a blog post, the EPA disputed the Chamber of Commerce findings.
"The chamber's report is nothing more than irresponsible speculation based on guesses of what our draft proposal will be," wrote Tom Reynolds, associate administrator for external affairs. "Just to be clear--it's not out yet. I strongly suggest that folks read the proposal before they cry the sky is falling."
A second report from the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions identifies opportunities for states to comply with section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act using policies that generate benefits beyond reductions in CO2 emissions. States may choose, for example, to reduce carbon emissions in a way that hedges risk of future air regulations, potentially lowers long-term compliance costs and limits emissions of other pollutants. In a separate report released this week, researchers at Harvard and Syracuse universities identified potential air quality impacts of section 111(d) policy designs that vary in stringency and flexibility.
Americans React to Climate Terms Differently
When the president discusses the proposed rule, a part of his Climate Action Plan, choosing whether to use "climate change" or "global warming" could elicit far different public responses, according to a new report.
The two terms are often used synonymously, but it turns out "global warming" invokes a stronger negative reaction than "climate change." In national surveys, respondents were 13 percentage points more likely to say global warming is bad than they were to say climate change is bad--76 percent compared with 63 percent.
"The whole realm of connotative meaning is actually where most of us live our daily lives," said lead Yale University researcher Anthony Leiserowitz. "When looking at a menu and deciding what to have for lunch, you see the word 'sushi'-- some people have the reaction, 'Oh, delicious, I'll order that,' and other people have a reaction of: 'Disgusting, raw fish.' So these terms play out not only in our every day decision making but also in our politics."
Between 2004 and 2014, "global warming" was the term searched more frequently on the Internet. Even though it's more scientifically accurate to talk about the problem as "climate change," the term "global warming" is more effective in conveying urgency. In The New York Times, Andrew Revkin argues that the latter term should dominate for other reasons: "As Roger A Pielke Jr. has pointed out for a decade, 'climate change' has proved problematic in a more technical sense--with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change defining the term differently, in ways that have significant ramifications in treaty negotiations."
Politically, the researchers said, "use of the term climate change appears to actually reduce issue engagement by Democrats, Independents, liberals, and moderates, as well as a variety of subgroups within American society, including men, women, minorities, different generations, and across political and partisan lines."
New Safety Conditions Set for Keystone
Safety regulators put two extra conditions on construction of the Keystone XL oil pipeline after learning of potentially dangerous construction defects involving the project's southern leg, including high rates of bad welds, dented pipe and damaged pipeline coating.
The defects have been fixed. However, the federal Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) wants to prevent similar problems from occurring in the pipeline's controversial northern segment, which is on hold pending a decision by the Obama administration.
"TransCanada had identified and addressed these issues prior to any product being introduced into the pipeline and reported them voluntarily to the government," said TransCanada spokesperson Davis Sheremata, noting that the southern leg's problems were a completely separate matter than issues related to the construction of the northern leg.
One of the two new conditions requires TransCanada to hire a third-party contractor chosen by PHMSA to monitor the construction and report on its soundness to the U.S. government. The second requires TransCanada to adopt a quality management program to ensure that the pipeline is built to Keystone and its contractors' highest standards.
Meanwhile, TransCanada is filing an amicus brief in Nebraska, siding with the governor and the state in a lawsuit filed by three Nebraska ranchers who want to block Keystone.
The Climate Post offers a rundown of the week in climate and energy news. It is produced each Thursday by Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.